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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a set of sounds and symbols used for communication
Mutual intelligibility
The level of understanding between two different languages
Regional variants of a language (i.e. Southern english)
Standard Language
The dominant language in a country/nation that is spoken by the public
Dialect chain
The closer the variants, the more similar the properties will be (distance decay)
A geographic boundary separating linguistic features
Language families
A group of languages with a shared origin (small scale)
Language Sub-Families
Languages that share many things in common (larger scale)
Proto-Indo European
The ancestor of many european languages Nostratic is its ancestor (language family)
Sound shift
A slight change in a word across languages within the same sub-families (milk)
Backward Reconstruction
How linguists track sound shifts and hardening of consonants (finding the origins)
EXTINCT language
A language without native speakers and that cannot be spoken by anyone (Bo in Sri Lanka)
DEAD language
A language that is not widely used and that doesn't have any native speakers but is still known (Latin)
Deep Reconstruction
Taking apart a language in order to find its roots
Nostratic Language
The ancestor of the Proto-Indo European languages
Language Divergence
When a language is formed by one language splitting into two (dialect turns into pidgin and then turns into a new language)
Language Convergence
When two language come together to form one new language (i.e. Beliz)
Renfrew hypothesis
From the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia (present day turkey) agriculture diffused Europe's Indo-European languages.
Conquest Theory
Spread by horseback through war and conquering (east to west)
Dispersal Hypothesis
diffusion by the travel of the language eastward then north around the Caspian sea and then west into Europe going through the trade hearths
Romance Family
Part of Indo-European, was part of Roman Empire (French Spanish Romanian and Italian)
Germanic Family
Part of Indo-European, Expanded by the move of people out of North Europe towards South and West Europe (English Danish Swedish German and Norwegian)
Slavic Family
Part of Proto-Indo-European Dominant in Eastern European states (Russian Polish Czech Slovak and Slovenian)
Uralic Family
Not Proto-Indo-European (Finnish Hungarian Estonians)
Altaic Family
Not Proto-Indo-European (Turkish)
Lingua Franca
A language used by people speaking different languages as a way to communicate (English maybe Spanish)
Pidgin Language
Similar to the beginning of Convergence, a language that has basic vocabulary structure
Creole language
a advanced pidgin language with more structure and a more complex vocabulary
Monolingual states
a state that only one language is spoken (iceland japan)
Multilingual states
a state where more then one language is prevalent (Usa South Africa Canada)
Global Language
Lingua Franca (English is closest)
Unique location
the name of a place
language that isn't in a distinct language family
arrangement of words and phrases in a sentence or paragraph.
the speed that people talk
the words that people use (different on for some dialects)
the way a person says a word
# of languages spoken in nigeria