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31 Cards in this Set

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Election of 1828
Jackson ran against John Quincy Adams. Many Democrats supported Jackson and portrayed him as a man of the people, causing him to win the election.
Criticisms of the National Bank
At first, people criticized the National Bank for its easy credit which led to the panic of 1819. Common people thought the bank was unconstitutional because it favored a small, privileged group. People didn't like that it posessed great power and privilege without being under popular control.
Panic of 1837
International economic depression caused by changes in the world economy. The price of cotton fell by almost 50%, specie payments were suspended, and businesses went bankrupt, leaving many unemployed.
Who were the Democrats?
The favored party of immigrants, Catholics, backwoods farmers, and freethinkers. They were against "positive liberal state", privilege, and monopoly. Democrats appealed to smaller farmers, workers, declining gentry, and emerging entreprenuers. They defended a strict interpretation of the Constitution, state rights, and laissez-faire. Democrats wanted to be free of restrictions on their freedom to think and behave as they liked.
"Positive Liberal State"
Whig ideology that government has the right and duty to subsidize or protect enterprises that could contribute to general prosperity or economic growth
"Tippecanoe and Tyler too"
The Whig slogan in the election of 1840 supporting William Henry Harrison who won the battle of Tippecanoe, and his running mate John Tyler
Kitchen Cabinet
Jackson's close friends and unofficial advisers, which included Amos Kendall and Francis P. Blair
the political philosophy of United States politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters. Jackson's policies followed the era of Jeffersonian democracy which dominated the previous political era. Prior to and during Jackson's time as President, his supporters (the beginnings of the modern Democratic Party) were resisted by the rival Adams and Anti-Jacksonian factions, which later gave rise to the Whigs. More broadly, the term refers to the period of the Second Party System (mid 1830s-1854) when Jacksonian philosophy was ascendant as well as the spirit of that era.
Spoils System”
practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of some measure of merit independent of political activity.
Indian Removal
Indian removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 26, 1830.
Jackson’s attitude toward Native Americans
Wanted them moved out the way! Did this through Trail of Tears.
“Trail of Tears"
The forced march of the Cherokee to Oklahoma
Nullification Crisis
a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared, by the power of the State itself, that the federal Tariff of 1828(tariff of abominations) and 1832 (slightly lowered tariff) were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina.
The Bank War
name given to the controversy over the Second Bank of the United States and the attempts to destroy it by then-president Andrew Jackson. At that time, it was the only nationwide bank and, along with its president Nicholas Biddle, exerted tremendous influence over the nation's financial system. Jackson viewed the Second Bank of the United States as a monopoly since it was a private institution managed by a board of directors, and in 1832 he vetoed the renewal of its charter. To kill the bank, Jackson withdrew funds and put them in "pet banks"
Arose from intense opposition to Jackson in response to the bank war. Majority of support came from National Republican supporters of Clay, and New England ex-Federalists. There was also support from southern states rightists who were upset with Jackson's stance on nullification and unconstitutional abuse of power
“Specie Circular”
was an executive order issued by U.S. President Andrew Jackson in 1836 that required that after August 15 only gold and silver would be accepted in payment for public lands. Served to curb inflation and land speculation, but contributed to the cause of the panic of 1837
John Calhoun
leading politician and political theorist from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century
Worcester v Georgia
was a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester, holding that the Georgia criminal statute, prohibiting non-Indians from being present on Indian lands without a license from the state, was unconstitutional.
Roger Taney
A Jackson loyalist and secretary of treasury who opposed the national Bank and withdrew government funds from it.
Force Bill
The United States Force Bill, formally titled "An Act further to provide for the collection of duties on imports", 4 Stat. 632 (1833), enacted by the 22nd U.S. Congress, consists of eight sections expanding Presidential power.
Peggy Eaton
Wife of Secretary of War John Eaton. The wives of other cabinet members refused to receive her because of gossip about her moral character. Jackson supported her along with Van Buren, but no other cabinet members did. This caused the reorganization of Jackson's cabinet
Tariff of 1828
The Tariff of 1828 was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States. It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy.
Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle (January 8, 1786 – February 27, 1844) was an American financier who served as the president of the Second Bank of the United States
Alexis de Tocqueville
French traveler and author of the most influential account of the emergence of American democracy. He viewed the essence of American democracy as local self-government. He also noted women's strict domestic sphere and he believed the nullification crisis foreshadowed destruction of the union and predicted the issue of slavery would lead eventually to civil war and racial conflict
Voting Rights
1790 Only white male adult property-owners have the right to vote.
1810 Last religious prerequisite for voting is eliminated.
1850 Property ownership and tax requirements eliminated by 1850. Almost all adult white males could vote.
1855 Connecticut adopts the nation's first literacy test for voting. Massachusetts follows suit in 1857. The tests were implemented to discriminate against Irish-Catholic immigrants.
self- made man
a famous lecture by Frederick Douglass (1818 – 1895). In this speech, which was first delivered in 1859, he gives his own definition of the self-made man and explains what he thinks are the means to become such a man.
2nd party system
a system where two major political parties dominate voting in nearly all elections at every level of government. As a result, all, or nearly all, elected offices are members of one of the two major parties.
voter participation
the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Increased greatly during the Jacksonian era
impact of trade unions
Reforms were called for and better working conditions and shorter workdays were achieved.
tariff of abominations
a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States. It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy.
john q adams and tarrifs
Adams’s advocacy of a strong federal government and a high tariff enraged defenders of slavery and states’ rights advocates who clung to traditional Jeffersonian principles of limited government and strict construction of the Constitution.