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207 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Due process
The legal principle that the state must respect all of the legal rights that are owed to a person under the law.
Those who favor a weak national government.
Articles of Confederation
A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War.
The right to use power.
Bicameral legislature
two legislative or parliamentary chambers
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Checks and balances
Authority shared by three branches of government.
A permanent union of sovereign states for common action in relation to other states.
Economic interpretation of Constitution (Charles Beard)
‘better-off urban and commercial classes favored the Constitution because they would benefit from it’
“Elastic clause”
(“Necessary and Proper Clasue”) Section of the Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws “necessary and proper” to its duties, and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it by the Constitution.
Electoral College
A set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.
Enumerated powers (location)
Powers given to the national government alone.
A group with a distinct political interest.
Those who favor a stronger national government.
Federalist Paper #10
Addresses the question of how to guard against factions with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole community.
Advice &consent
Enacting Formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts, describing a situation in which the executive branch of a government enacts something previously approved of by the legislative branch.
A change made to a pending motion or a bill by a motion to amend.
Federalist Paper #51
Addresses means by which appropriate checks and balances can be created in government and also advocates a separation of powers within the national government.
Great Compromise
Plan to have a popularly elected House based on state population and a state-selected Senate, with two members from each state.
Implied powers
Those powers authorized by a legal document which, while not stated, are seemed to be implied by powers expressly stated.
Indirect democracy - Patrick Henry 1787
1. Vote for representatives 2. Antifed that refused to atten meeting in Philadelphia
Interstate commerce
Commerce between two or more states.
Judicial review
The power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional.
Political authority conferred by law or by a state or national constitution.
Marbury v. Madison
It formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. It was also the first time in Western history a court invalidated a law by declaring it “unconstitutional.” The landmark decision helped define the “checks and balances” of the American form of government.
“Mischief of factions”
Interest Groups would seek to further their own ends at the expense of the welfare of the nation.
Natural rights
“Inalienable rights” Considered to be self-evident and universal.
“Necessary and proper clause” (location)
Article One of the Constitution, Section 8, Clause 18
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state’s opinion, violates the Constitution.
Popular sovereignty
The political principle that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power.
The ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person’s intentions.
Penname used by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay to write the Federalist Papers
A principal’s approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principle. The applies to private contract law, international treaties, and constitutionals I federations.
Separation of powers
Constitutional authority is shared by three different branches of government.
Shay’s Rebellion
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes.
Social contract theory
An intellectual device intended explain the appropriate relationship between individuals and their government. Social contract arguments assert that individuals unite into political societies by a process of mutual consent.
The quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory.
An organized political community, living under a government. A sovereign political entity in public international law.
Simple majority
A voting requirement of more than half of all ballots cast ( greater than 50%)
Super majority
A requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple majority. (2/3 majority).
Supremacy clause (location)
Article IV, Clause II. Establishes the U.S. Constitution, U.S. Treaties, and Federal Statutes as "the supreme law of the land."
Unicameral legislature
All power is given to one house.
Writ of habeas corpus
An order to produce an arrested person before a judge.
Writ of mandamus
Issued by a superior court to compel a lower court or a government officer to perform mandatory or purely ministerial duties correctly.
block grant
Money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines determined by Washington.
categorical grant
Federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport
commerce clause
Enumerated Power (Article I, Section VIII, Clause III). Congress has power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian Tribes.
concurrent power
Powers shared by the state and federal government.
condition of aid
Terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds.
cooperative federalism
Concept of federalism in which national, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems.
The effort to transfer responsibility for many public programs and services from the federal government to the states.
direct regulation
The economic style of command economies, like communism where all economic decisions are made by government.
Horizontal division of power
this involves common programmes among the fifty states.
Vertical division of power
this is viewed as the traditional form of federalism as it sees the actions of the national government as supreme within their constitutional sphere.
elastic clause / neccessary and proper clause
Section of the Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws “necessary and proper” to its duties, and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it by the Constitution.
Government authority shared by national and local governments
federal mandate
Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants.
fiscal federalism
concerned with understanding which functions and instruments are best centralized and which are best placed in the sphere of decentralized levels of government.
full faith and credit clause
Addresses the duties that states within the United States have to respect the “public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Supreme Court held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution.
Coming from central government for a specific project. This kind of funding is usually used when the government and parliament have decided that the recipient should be publicly funded but operates with reasonable independence from the state.
indirect regulation
such as state taxation of federal employees
intergovernmental lobb
state and local officials like mayers, governors, police chiefs, etc. who count on federal funds
interstate commerce
Commerce involving multiple states
Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants.
matching funds
states provide money to go with federal categorical grant
McCulloch v. Maryland
when state tried to tax fed bank
New Deal
Roosevelt’s plan to get out of depression that made Democrats the dominant party
New Federalism
political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states
NRLB v. Jones& Laughlin Steel
claimed discrimination in co. was not interstate
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state’s opinion, violates the Constitution.
police powers/reserved powers
state power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals
project grants
grants given by the government to fund research projects, such as a research project for medical purposes
revenue sharing
Federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states.
states' rights theory
idea that the state governments, not the national government, are supreme and therefore have the right to nullify any act of the national government.
unitary system
One in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the national government, so that the states and localities are dependent on its will.
Unfunded Mandate Act
A bill to curb the practice of imposing unfunded Federal mandates on States and local governments
US v. Lopez
national power under commerce clause reduced
Conflictual political culture
one in which different groups (or subcultures) clash with opposing beliefs and values
Consensual political culture
experiences less conflict
Core American values
shaped the political culture since the founding of the country
Alex de Tocqueville
early observer of American political culture ö came to the United States during the 1830s to investigate why the American democracy seemed to be so successful,
Equality of opportunity
citizens with equal opportunity to succeed or fail
Equality of results
citizens receiving equal results
Free enterprise
the freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation.
Political culture
the traditional orientation of the citizens of a nation toward politics, affecting their perceptions of political legitimacy.
Political efficacy
a citizen’s capacity to understand and influence political events (internal and external
Political tolerance
The willingness of people to reasonably tolerant to the opinions and actions of others that are not in accordance with their own.
Rugged individualism
stresses "the moral worth of the individual" and promotes the exercise of one's goals and desires and so value independence and self-reliance[2] while opposing most external interference upon one's own interests, whether by society, family or any other group or institution.
Rule of law
aka supremacy of the law
Second Bill of Rights
list of rights proposed by Franklin D. Roosevelt during his State of the Union Address who claimed the "political rights" guaranteed by the constitution and the Bill of Rights had "proved inadequate to assure us equality in the pursuit of happiness." Roosevelt's remedy was to declare an "economic bill of rights"
a political and social philosophy that promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions and supports, at the most, minimal and gradual change in society
George Gallup
an American pioneer of survey sampling techniques and inventor of the Gallup poll, a successful statistical method of survey sampling for measuring public opinion
belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights
Opinion congruence
the level of correspondence between government action and majority sentiment on an issue
Opinion saliency
some people care more about certain issues than other people do
Opinion stability
the steadiness or volatility of opinion on an issue
Political ideology
A more or less consistent set of beliefs about what policies government ought to pursue.
Political socialization
Process by which background traits influence one’s political views
Public opinion
How people think or feel about particular things.
Random sample
Method of selecting from a population in which each person has an equal probability of being selected.
Sampling error
The difference between the results of random samples taken at the same time.
“Solid South”
electoral support of the Southern United States for the Democratic Party candidates for nearly a century from 1877, the end of Reconstruction, to 1964, during the middle of the Civil Rights era
Australian ballot
A government-printed ballot of uniform dimensions to be cast in secret that many states adopted around 1890 to reduce voting fraud associated with party-printed ballots cast in public.
Congressional campaign committee
A party committee in Congress that provides funds to members and would-be members.
Critical election
The coming to power for several decades of a new coalition, replacing an old dominant coalition, also called realigning election.
Democratic Party (Democrats)
One of the two major contemporary political parties in the US. The party’s socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the US political spectrum.
Divided government
One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress.
A right or privilege.
An individual who is not aligned with any political party
Linkage institutions
A structure within a society that connects the people to the government or centralized authority. These institutions include
Multimember electoral districts
A distinct territorial subdivision for holding a separate election for one or more seats in a legislative body. Generally only voters who reside within the geographical bounds of an electoral district are permitted to vote in an election held there.
National Chair
Day-to-day party manager elected by the national committee.
National Committee (DNC / RNC)
Delegates who run party affairs between national conventions.
National Convention
A meeting of party delegates held every four years.
New Deal coalition / Roosevelt Coalition
It was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for the Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s. It made the Democratic Party the majority party during that period.
Party de- alignment
A large portion of the electorate abandons its previous party affiliation.
Party identification
the political party with which an individual identifies himself with.
Party organization
A party that typically seeks to influence government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office.
Party platform
A list of the actions which a political party, individual candidate or other organization supports in order to appeal to the general public for the purpose of having said peoples’ candidates voted into political office or professed opinions proposed as part of law or otherwise made into social policies.
A group of members who see themselves loyal to the party.
Party-in government
All of the elected and appointed officials who identify with a party.
The use of sate resources to reward individuals for their electoral support.
Political party
A group that seeks to elect candidates to political office.
Political ward
A subdivision of a municipality.
Generally the lowest-level governmentally-related division in the United States, also known as an election district.
Proportional representation
The number of seats won by a party or group of candidates is proportionate to the number of votes received
Reagan coalition
The combination of voters that Ronald Reagan assembled to produce a major political realignment with his landslide in the 1980 United States Presidential Election.
Periods when a major, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties.
Republican Party (GOP) (Republicans)
Founded by anti-slavery expansion activates in 1854, often called the GOP. The party’s platform generally reflects American conservatism in the US political spectrum and is considered center-right.
Republican Revolution of 1994
In the 1994 US midterm elections the Republican Party had a net gain of 54 seats in the House of Representatives, and a pickup of eight seats in the Senate.
Single-issue party
A political party that campaigns on only one issue. Such a party is rarely successful in gaining elected office.
Single-member district
An electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
Spin-off party
Releases of US diplomatic cables
Splinter party
A political party formed by members of an existing one whose views or policies differ from those of the majority.
Straight ticket voting
Voting for candidates who are all from the same party.
Sustaining election
A large election
Third party
Any party aside from the Democratic or Republican parites.
Ticket splitting
The propensity of voters in the United States to simultaneously cast votes for the candidates of different parties (where straight-ticket voting is the opposite).
Two-party system
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections.
Whig Party (Whigs)
During the Jacksonian era. Considered integral to the Second Party System and operating from the early1830s to the mid-1850s, the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Jackson and his Democratic Party.
“winner-take-all”/ plurality
An electoral system in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes, even if he or she does not receive a majority
15th Amendment
guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race.
19th Amendment
guaranteed women the right to vote.
24th Amendment
prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
26th Amendment
lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
“beauty contest”
A contest or election that is decided on the basis of popularity
blanket primary
A system used for selecting political party candidates in a primary election in the US. Voters may pick one candidate for each office without regard to party lines.
A political science concept involving selection of candidates for public office the electorate, rather than directly voting on each individual piece of proposed legislation, must choose a number of candidates (or parties) for the legislature.
Case work
Social work involving direct consideration of the problems needs and adjustments of the individual case.
Closed primary
An election in which party members or voters select candidates for an election.
Coattail effect
The tendency for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election.
Crossover voting
Refers to a behavior in which voters who normally participate in the primary of one party instead vote in the primary of another party.
Eligible voter
Anyone who meets the requirements to vote. Differs from registered voter.
Expanding electorate
the amount of people who are required to vote in an election is expanding
Expansion of the franchise
expanding the voting rights
Federal election Campaign Act (Federal campaign Commission)
the United States federal law which increased disclosure of contributions in federal campaigns. Created FCC.
Franking privilege
the ability of members to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature for postage
Front loading
choosing an early date to hold the primary election
Front runner
one in the leading position of an election campaign
drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizarre of unusual shapes to favor one party
Indirect election (Electoral College)
representatives from each state that cast ballots for the president and vice president
Iowa Caucus
an electoral event in which residents of the U.S. state of Iowa meet in precinct caucuses in all of Iowa's 1774 precincts and elect
Motor Voter Law (1993)
to make voter registration easier, it requires states to allow people to register to vote when applying for driver’s licenses and to provide registration through the mail and at some state offices
New Hampshire Primary
the first in a series of nationwide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years (although the Iowa caucus is held earlier), as part of the process of choosing the Democratic and Republican nominees for the presidential elections
Open primary
a primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place
Political consultant
workers in the campaign industry promoting a campaign
redistribution of the congressional seats among the states after the census determines changes in population distribution
Registered voter
people registered to vote
requirement for citizens and residents to check in with some central registry specifically for the purpose of being allowed to vote in elections
Socioeconomic status
an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation
Soft $ v. hard $
soft is not on behalf of a specific candidate, just spent on party activities
Super Tuesday
day when most southern states hold presidential primaries
Swing voters
people whose votes go to any of a number of candidates in an election, or, in a two-party system, may go to either of the two dominant political parties
Telescoping effect
people's tendency to perceive recent events as being more remote than they are, and to perceive distant events as being more recent than they are
Tracking poll
a survey of public opinion from a particular sample to present the status of an election
Voting Rights Act (1965)
suspended the use of literacy tests and authorized the appointment of federal examiners who could order the registration of blacks in states and counties with low voter turnout
Amicus curiae
a brief submitted by a “friend of the court”
Class action lawsuits
a case brought to help him and all others who are similarly situated
to take an active part in an election
Elitist theory
a small group of people identified by wealth or political power, who rule in their self-interest
Foundation grants
funds to public-interest lobbying groups from foundations like the Rockefeller Family fund
Free rider problem
the negative effects of someone who joins an interest group without contributing
Hyper-pluralist theory
democracry seen as a system of many groups pulling government in many directions at the same time, causing gridlock and ineffectiveness
Individual interests
interests of the people individually
Institutional interest
individuals or organizations representing other organizations, usually in Washington
Interest groups
an organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy
attempting to influence policy makers through a variety of methods
Pluralist theory
interest groups compete in the political arena with each promoting its own policy preferences through organized efforts
Political action committees (PAC)
a committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from volunteer donations
Public interest groups
a political organization whose goals will principally benefit nonmembers
The “ratings game”
assessment of a representative’s voting record on issues important to an interest group
Revolving door
movement of personnel between roles as legislators and regulators and the industries affected by the legislation and regulation
Union shop
a form of a union security clause under which the employer agrees to hire either labor union members or nonmembers but all non-union employees must become union members within a specified period of time or lose their jobs
Agenda setting
deciding what to make policy about
series or log of discussion items on a page online
Confidentiality of sources
the authorities, including the courts, cannot compel a journalist to reveal the identity of an anonymous source for a story
Equal time rule
an FCC rule that if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate, it must sell equal time to other candidates
Fairness doctrine
required broadcasters that air one side of a story to give time to opposing points of view
Federal Communications Commission
decides which broadcasters for radio and television shall be licensed and on what terms
Press secretary
senior White House official whose primary responsibility is to act as spokesperson for the government administration
Prior restraint
censorship of publication
Right of reply
right to defend oneself against public criticism through the same newspaper that it was published
Sound bites
a radio or video clip of someone speaking
Spin doctor
people hired by politicians to ‘spin’ facts, implying disingenuous, deceptive and/or highly manipulative tactics
Telecommunications Act of 1996
allowed one company to own as many as eight stations in large markets, five in small, and infinite nationally
White House press corps
group of journalists or correspondents usually stationed at the White House in Washington, D.C. to cover the president of the United States, White House events and news briefings