• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
when: 14th through 16th centuries
des: the rebirth of literature, art, philosophy, and political and historical thought
sig: This provided influence into Western Civilization
program of study, including rhetoric and literature, based on what students in the classical world would have studied
Francesco Petrarch
Father of Humanism
people sought to receive personal credit for their achievements, as opposed to the medieval ideal of all glory going to God.
concern with the material world instead of with the eternal world of spirit
New Monarchs
Rested on the ideal of a centralized government and in the 15th century en era of colonization and conquest leading to rapid economic growth in Europe in the 16th century.
Where-Northern Italian cities
What- sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles.
Merchant guilds formed the communes and maintained the city walls, regulated trade, raised taxes, and kept civil order
over taxed and bitter from their exclusion of power in the communes used armed force and violence to take over the city government-REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENT, power resides in the people
Consistory of Geneva
body of twelve laymen plus the Company of Pastors, Calvin presided over all of them. Admonish amiably those whom they see leading a disorderly life
Index of Prohibited Books
During the Counter-Reformation to prohibit the success of the Protestants.
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent (1545–1563) reaffirmed the equal authority of Scripture and of Church tradition. It reaffirmed also the seven sacraments and transubstantiation.
The Council required bishops to reside in their own dioceses, ended pluralism and simony, and forbade the sale of indulgences.
The Council ordered that for a marriage to be valid the vows had to be exchanged publicly.
English Reformation
The Catholic Church was vigorous in early sixteenth century England and there was less of a gap between clergy and educated laypeople than elsewhere in Europe.
In 1534, in order to legitimize his divorce and subsequent marriage to Anne Boleyn, English King Henry VIII convinced Parliament to approve the Act of Supremacy, making him head of the English Church.
Later, Henry seized monasteries and distributed their lands to the upper classes.
Elizabeth I (r. 1558–1603), daughter of Henry VIII, steered a middle course between Catholicism and the “Puritans” who wanted a “pure” church free of Catholic influences.
Ursulin Nuns
The new order of Ursuline nuns fought heresy with religious education for girls.
Martin Luther Beliefs
Luther maintained that God’s grace alone, without any element of individual good works, saved people.
Luther held that religious authority resided in Scripture alone, not Scripture in combination with traditional Church teachings.
Luther asserted that the Church consisted of the whole community of believers, not just the clergy.
Luther argued that all vocations were equally holy, and that monasticism was not a higher vocation.
Luther emphasized the invisible Church of all believers, not the visible hierarchy culminating in the Pope.
Luther argued that there were only three, not seven, sacraments¾baptism, penance, and the Eucharist.
The Catholic Church claimed transubstantiation¾that is, that the bread and wine of the Eucharist literally became Christ’s body and blood—but Luther disagreed.
Luther argued for consubstantiation¾that Christ was really present in the host in spirit, but that the bread and wine were not transformed.
Zwingli argued that the Eucharist was a memorial of the Last Supper and nothing more.
John Calvin believed with Luther in consubstantiation.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis
(1559) between France and Spain made Spain dominant in Italy. It ended an age of dynastic warfare and began an age of religious and political warfare.
Motives for Exploration
the explorers wished to get rich, in part through the spice trade.
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
1438 Charles VII, asserting the superiority of a general council over the papacy.

Gave the French crown major control over the appointment of bishops
Concordat of Bologna
Francis I agreed to recognize the supremacy of the papacy over a universal council.

French crown gained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
court of Star Chamber
a division of the English royal council, a court that used Roman legal procedures to curb real or potential threats from the nobility, the court so called because there were stars painted on the ceiling of the chamber in which the court sat.
new Christians
term applied to Jews who accepted Christianity but since many had become Christian centuries earlier, the word new is not accurate; Spanish nationalism stressed purity of blood.
Peace of Westphalia
1648,general name of a series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Years War; recognized the sovereign authority of 300+ German princes (and thereby the end of the Holy roman Empire as a viable state); acknowledged the independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands; made Calvinism a permissible creed within Germany; and, by implication, reduced the role of the Roman Catholic Church in European politics.
moderates of both religious faiths who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse.
price revolution
economic theory that the flood of South American bullion into Europe created widespread inflation or price rise; much disputed by scholars.
Protestant Union
1608,alliance of German Lutheran princes alarmed at religious and territorial spread of Calvinism and Catholicism. Catholic princes responded with the Catholic League (1609). The two armed camps erupted in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648).
European stock exchange, i.e. group of people organized to provide an auction market among themselves for the buying and selling of securities in good. In the mid-16 th century, the bourse at Antwerp was the largest in Europe.