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54 Cards in this Set

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Greek philosopher who documented the several types of Greek organized government in the 4th century BC
Greek philosopher who wrote about Greek politics in the Republic, 4th century BC
Greek philosopher who recorded much of Greek though in Athens from 384 - 322 BC. Famous work: Politics.
"the father of history." Traveled throughout Greece and beyond recording the past as separate from myth/legend.
Greek historian who recorded the history of the wars between Athens and Sparta.
Greek mathemetician. Found fundamental reality in numbers.
Ruled Greece and led conquering march into Asia, Persia, and India. Helped spread Greek culture. 356-323 BC.
Man born around 4 BC whose followers believed him to be the Son of God. Inspired Christianity
Strong leader of the early Christians, helped spread Christianity.
Wrote the City of God in AD 420 which reconciled the authority of Caesar and Christ and to define the eternal spiritual world of Christianity as separate from the Roman Empire.
The languages spoken in Europe in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Greek, Latin and most European languages came from this type of speech
Independent, often-warring societies generally consisting of a small coastal city and its farmlands and found in Greece.
pax Romana
Peace kept by the Roman Empire throughout its territories.
Roman Law
A body of principals developed by Roman lawyers which provided a form of justice for Roman citizens.
City of God
heavenly society defined by St. Augustine. Possibly heaven itself or a system of perfect virtues and justice.
a political system in which one person has the powers of ruler and pontiff.
first Roman emporer to accept Christianity in the 4th Century. Founded the Eastern capital of the Roman Empire, Constantinople.
Primary prophet of Islam who stressed monotheism and the power of God. Grew up in Mecca but moved to Medina converting many Muslims.
King of the Franks who converted to Christianity around 496.
Greatest leader of the Franks. Cooperated with the pope and was crowned Emporer of the West in hopes of restoring the Roman Empire. Controlled most of the Latin Christian world.
a Christian leader whose rule of chastity, poverty and obedience was adopted by many monastic houses
Asian "barbarians" who invaded central Europe around 450 led by Attila.
Sect of Muslims formed by followers the Umayyad family who controlled the caliphate after the death of Muhammad.
Minority sect of Muslims formed by followers of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali.
Petrine Supremacy
Doctrine of Christianity giving papal authority to the Roman bishops who were Peter's successors.
Donation of Constantine
Alleged donation of the government of Rome to the pope by Emperor Constantine, later proved to be false.
Battle of Tours
Conflict on the river Loire where invading Arabs who had come through Spain were stopped by a Christian and Frankish army in 732.
AKA Hungarians. Invaded Charlemagne's Empire until they settled on the Danube around 900.
Germanic trives who uprooted themselves spreading to Russia, discovering Iceland, touching America and assaulting the coasts of the Christian world to eventually settle in England and Normandy, France.
Great Schism
Final official separation of the Latin/Roman Catholic Church in the West and the Greek Orthodox churches of the east in 054
three field system
peasant village divided fields into three parts, two were planted with different crops and the third was left to rest. The parts were rotated each year to keep the soil from being exhausted.
Great lords or "counts" controlled large areas of land through their vassals, who fought for the count when needed. The vassals were land owners who wanted the protection of the count.
local system of government that was common in Europe after Charlemagne's empire fell apart. In essence a contractual government between lords and vassals.
people who worked on the lands of the lord and gave him a portion of their produce in return for his protection and justice. Serfs could not leave the manor.
A league of mainly German towns who united to represss banditry and piracy and deal with controlling nobles. The Hanse even fought wars together.
Corporate Liberties
liberties won by towns. Personal liberty, economic sanctions requiring surrounding peasants to sell produce in the town market and outside merchants to pay fees to do business inside the town.
Groups formed by craftsmen and merchants in which guild "masters" organized the production, prices, wages, and training within their trade or craft in a town.
Magna Carta
Contract written by English lords and churchmen and signed by King John that guaranteed them certain rights and liberties.
three estates
Three divisions of interest within a country. Occasionally called together in a representative body to meet with the monarch. first estate: clergy. second estate: nobility. third estate: burghers of the chartered towns.
Parliament/House of Commons
groups of clergy, nobility, and townspeople who assembled to advise and bargain with the king. The House of Commons consisted of elected representative townspeople and gentry.
House of Lords
Parliementary body in England consisting of powerful clergy and nobles. Also found in Hungary and Poland.
smaller landowners and less powerful nobles
Gregory VII
One of the first popes to be elected by cardinals who dreamed of a centralized and powerful world church. He reformed the clergy by making them celibate and requiring clerical positions to be received from the Church. He forced Emporer Henry IV to recognize the power of the Church.
Innocent III
Pope from 1198 to 1216 who exercised political power all over Latin Christendom. He was acknowledged as a fuedal overlord in England, Aragon, and Portugal. Called a church council to control the clergy and regulate sacraments.
Italian churchman who gave reasoned arguments in "Cur Deus Homo?" --"Why did God Become Man?" that God became man to save sinful human beings. Therefore reason supported faith.
Parisian scholar who wrote "Sic et Non" or "Yes or No" which applied reason to many Church teachings and find the truth of Christian doctrine, making faith consistent with reason.
Thomas Aquinas
"Angelic Doctor." Great scholar who wrote the "Summa Theologica" as a survey of all knowledge. Using strict logic he outlined a form of "realism" that gave all creation a place in a hierarchy at the top of which was God. His teaching allowed people to believe in the enduring holiness of the Church despite evidence to the contrary.
Cluniac reform
A new monasgic order whose purpose was to purify monastic life and set a higher Christian ideal for clergy and laity. They denied any authority but that of Rome.
Investiture struggle
The Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV argued with Pope Gregory VII over the practice of "lay investiture" (bishops receiving spiritual authority from the emperor) which was prohibited by Gregory.
Place where Henry IV came to the pope to do penance for his attempts to award Church offices as a layman and infringing on the authority of the pope.
The scholarly movement embodied in Thomas Aquinas that tried to reconcile Greek and Arabic knowledge with the Christian faith.
A body of individuals interested in learned that possessed liberties under a charter, gave courses and lectures, and awarded degrees recognized throughout the Latin West. Generally consisted of distinct schools of theology, law and/or medicine
the chief sacrament of Catholicism. It was declared to be a direct channel of God's saving grave by Pope Innocent III's great church council
the Church dogma which stated that the priest truly converts bread and wine into the substance of Christ's body and blood during the Mass.