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66 Cards in this Set

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Jacob Burckhardt
-19th century swiss historian
-argued Renaissance made new secular/scientific values
-criticized for being overly exaggerative
-growing national consciousness, political centralization
-urban economy based on organized commerce/capitalism
-growing lay/secular control over thought, culture and religion
Giovanni Boccaccio
-Decameron:exposed sexual/economic misconduct; sympathetic look at human nature
-assembled encyclopedia of Greek/Roman mythology
Florence social classes
-Grandi: old rich
-popolo grosso: newly rich
-popolo minuto: low wealthy
-pauper: poor
Ciompi Revolt
-caused by feuding between wealthy, anarchy caused by Black Death, collapse of Bardi and Peruzzi bank houses
-chaotic four year reign by lower class
Cosimo de' Medici
-wealthiest Florentine/natural statesman
-worked behind the scenes:controlled constitution/elections
-created loyalty in the Signoria through relations with electors
Lorenzo the Magnificent
-grandson of Cosimo de' Medici
-totalitarian fashion of rule
-became cautious from brother's assassination
-known as podestá
-hired strongmen
-maintained law/order by whatever means
-held military, executive, and judicial authority
-subject to dismissal by oligarchies
-popular object of assassination
-military brokers
-provided despots with mercenaries
-study of Latin/Greek classics and church fathers
-hopes of reviving ancient norms and values
Studia Humanitatis
-liberal arts program of study
-grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and moral philosophy
Leonardo Bruni
-gave the name 'humanitatis' to learning from such scholarly pursuits
-star student of Manuel Chrysoloras
Manuel Chrysoloras
-introduced Greek scholarship to Greek humanists by teaching in Florence
-wrote in classical/vernacular languages
-inspired by discovered works of ancients
-taught rhetoric in universities
-father of humanism
-left legal profession to pursue letters and poetry
-mostly lived in Avignon
-involved in revolt in Rome
-served Visconti family in Milan
-letters of the Ancient Dead: celebrated ancient Rome
-Africa: tribute to Scipio Africanus
-lives of Illustrious Men: biographies of famous Roman men
-Vita Nuova/Divine Comedy: fromed cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature
-Book of the Courtier: practical guide to be an ideal noble
-flattering view of human nature
-distinguished between sphere of being and perishable world
Pico della Mirandola
-Oration on the Dignity of Man: humans could be whatever they chose/has unlimited potential
Lorenzo Valla
-educated in Latin/Greek
-devote Christian
-Elegances of the Latin Language
-made standard Latin for learning
-proved donation of Constantine to pope was fraud
-textual criticism
Civic Humanism
-education should promote individual virtue and public service
-use of shading to enhance naturalness
-father of Renaissance painting
-admired St. Francis of Assisi
Leonardo da Vinci
-master of many skills
-showed Renaissance ideal of the universal person
-advised Italian princes and Francis I on military engineering
-dissected corpses for anatomy
-foresaw many modern creations
-tender madonnas/fresco in Vatican
-The School of Athens
-depressed all the time
-sculpted David
-Sistine frescos
-later works are different
-started mannerism
-always worried about $$$
-putting feeling into art
Treaty of Lodi
-allied Milan+Naples+Florence vs. Venice+Papal States
-could unite to fight foreign enemies
Ludovico il Moro
-despot of Milan
-went to France for help after being threatened by Naples,Florence,Pope Alexander VI
-made by small city-states
-spread during Italian wars
-interests of state above all else
-surprised when Italy was attacked
-wanted Italy to be orderly and politically strong in Europe
-The Prince (1513)
-supported dictatorship
-better feared than loved
Johannes Gutenburg
-invented printing press with moveable type
-cheaper books
-created smarter society
new monarch
-tried to get power by taking away from nobles
-needed power over clergy
-made middle-class army and loyal officials, not lords, to important gov't positions
-strengthen borders/show military strength
Henry VII
-first Tudor king of England
-lived from land income/traditional fees than taxes
-avoided wars
-liked by the people~strengthened rules and monarchy
Court of Star Chamber
-made by Edward II
-used by Henry VII
-good way to control nobles
-got rid of nobles' intimidation by putting in king's judges/councilors
Marriage of Ferdinand+Isabella
-unified Spain
-nobles replaced by educated middle class~only monarchy held power
-Spanish Inquisition~drove off Muslims/Jews
Wycliffe & Huss
-Oxford theologian
-wanted poor clergy
-clergy should receive accolades by merit
-condemned by pope
-preaching in vernacular/no indulgences
-ideas led by Huss in Bohemia~caused religious revolts
Renaissance Popes
-thought worldly issues more important
-involved in wars/politics
-appointed family members to be cardinals
-patrons of culture
Charles VIII
-attacked Italy in 1494
-forced out
-made great debts
-brought Italian humanists to France through attacks
Louis XII
-attacked Italy, captured Milan
-Father of the people
-reformed judicial system/reduced taxes
Francis I
-first French Renaissance king
-patron of arts
-man of letters
-liked humanism
-introduced Italian architecture to France
Henry II
-married Catherine de Medici
-started Habsburg-Valois war against Charles V
-wanted to get into Italy but denied
-died at son's wedding
Charles IX
-son of Henry II
-oversaw St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
-strongly influenced by mom/Guise family
Henry III
-son of Henry II
-dealt with Huguenots/Catholics
-killed duke of Guise
-forced to work with Henry with Navarre (protestant) against Catholics
-killed by monk
Henry IV
-brother in law of Henry III
-Huguenot leader
-converted to Catholicism
-Edict of Nantes
-planted seed for absolutism in France
Henry VII
-wins War of the Roses
-strengthens own power/gov't~weakened nobles
-Court of the Star Chamber (quick justice)
Henry VIII
-defender of the faith
-wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon
-made Church of England (Anglican Faith)
-very catholic protestantism
Edward VI
-heir to Henry VIII
-makes England protestant
-Archbishop Cranmer introduced Book of Common Prayer
-Edward VI's half sister
-married Philip II (England hated foreigners)
-persecuted/killed Protestants
-weakened England through economic down-turn
Elizabeth I
-heir to Mary I
-last of the TUDORS
-39 articles
-compromised Anglicans and others
-strongest female monarch in Europe to date
Ferdinand and Isabella
-joined Castile and León with Aragon
-Inquisition to unify Spain
-started expeditions to spread Catholicism and gain power
Charles I (Charles V)
-first ruler of a unified Spain
-more Austrian in language/custom
-more HRE than king
-son of Ferdinand/Isabella
Philip II
-ruled Spain,Portugal,Netherlands,Italian provinces, New World colonies
-ardent Catholic-more Spanish than dad
-loss of Spanish Armada in 1588
-most influential Renaissance artist before Michelangelo
-revived figure of nude body
-David~first nude statue
Marks of Italian Renaissance Architecture
-classic order of columns
-dominated churches,chapels,landed estates,gov't buildings
Filippo Brunelleschi
-great Italian architect
-Dome of Florence Cathedral
-first painter that started modern era of painting through scientific perspective
Sir Thomas More
-Utopia~"social equality"
-private property=corruption
-man can be reformed
-introduced humanism to England
-killed by not recognizing Henry VIII as head of England Church
-criticized Church
-wanted simpler faith
-fine with Church doctrine
-In Praise of Folly~makes fun of/criticizes the Church
-supported education, wrote in Latin,Greek, and vernacular
-1516~published first NT in Greek
-saved religious education from Scholastics through reason
-not religious
-set standard for English language
Renaissance Art outside of Italy
-more attached to Gothic/Middle Ages
-less patrons~less centers of commerce
-illustrated manuscripts over paintings
-Italians motivated by humanism
-others by religious reform
-distance from Rome~secular art/everyday scenes
-look of painting over perspective/anatomy
Jan Van Eyck
-well paid
-patron of Duke Philip of Burgundy
Albrecht Dürer
-famous for metal/wood engravings
-greatest Dutch painter
-famous for using realism/light and shading
-painted religious/everyday objects
Dutch Society
-toleration of religion/freedom
-very Protestant
-emphasized hard work
-center of trade/banking
Pieter Bruegel
-painted peasants/everyday life
-not poor
-"Peasant Pieter"