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58 Cards in this Set

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Define: Ecology
The Study of the interactions between organisms and the environment
Define: Population Ecology
The studo of populations in relation to the environment including: environmental influences on density and distribution, age structure (demography) and variations in pop. size
Population Distribution
The pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of a population.
Pop. Distribution: Clumped
individuals aggregate into patches because of specific environmental factors, mating behaviors, or the effectiveness of foraging
Pop. Dist: Uniform
individuals are evenly spaced because of direct interactions between individuals, alleopathy, or territoriality.
Pop. Dist: Random
unpredictable spacing, least common.
Density independent limiting factors
the number of organisms present does not influence the degree of the effect, typically abiotic such as fires, hurricanes, drought, pollution, slides, tsunamis
density dependent limiting factors
the number of organisms present does influence the effect, typically biotic such as competition, disease, humans, predators
intrinsic factors
the factors possessed by the organisms within the population suchas anatomy, physiology, behavior
r-strategists
allocate energy toward production of young, short lifespans, small individuals, fast maturation, many offspring, little to no care of young, common in environments with fluxuating variablesdon't go extinct,
k-strategist
allocate energy toward growth and survival of themselves and their young, long lifespans, large individuals, slow maturation, few offspring, much care of offspring, common in stable/predictable environments, can go extinct, Type I.
demography
the stuydy of the vital statistics of populations and how they change over time
cohorts
a group of individuals of the same age within a population (generation)
Type I survivorship Curve
Low death rate for early and middle life then death increases at the later years(k-strategists aka. humans)
Type II survivorship curve
constant death rate throughout organisms life span
Type III survivorship curve
high death rates at the beginning of life span with a decline later (r-strategists)
community ecology
assemblage of populations interacting with one another in the same habitat, focuses on community structure and interactions
Biodiversity
the variety of different kinds of organisms that make up a community, based on species richness, species evenness, and the variety of diversity
species richness
the number of different species that occupy a community
species evenness
the relative abundance of organisms of each species
What is the importance of Biodiversity?
the more diverse an ecosystem, the ore productivity there is within it (diverse ecosystems function more effectively), they are more resilient to damage (elastic)
Dominant Species
those populations that are the most abundant or have the highest biomass, they exert a powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species in the community
Keystone Species
not necessarily abundant in a community, but they do exert strong control because most species within the community either rely directly or indirectly on them
habitat
where a population lives and reproduces.
niche
role a population plays in its community including its habitat (abiotic) and the interactions with other populations (biotic)
intraspecific competition
competition between members within a population
interspecific competition
members of different populations utilize a limited resource (light, space, water, nutrients)
competition exclusion principle
-/- no two populations can occupy the same niche at the same time- eventually one population will force the other out by using the resources more efficiently
resource partitioning
2 or more species decrease competition by dividing a niche into separate areas
predator prey interactions
+/- the population of the predator is affected by the prevalence of the prey and visa-verse, results in cyclical populations instead of a steady rate where the predator is smaller in size and lags behind in time.
camouflage
method from hiding from predators in which organism's behavior, form, coloration, allow it to blend into the habitat (cryptic coloration and aposematic coloration)
aposematic coloration
bright coloration of animals with effective physical or chemical defenses that acts as a warning to predators
cryptic coloration
camouflage of an animal used to blend in with its surroundings
mimicry
when one species resembles another that possesses an anti-predator defense and expresses aposematic coloration (batesian and mullarian)
batesian mimicry
a mimic that lacks the defense of the organism it resembles
mullarian mimicry
mimics that share the same protective defense
symbiotic relationships
interactions where there is a close intimate relationship between members of two populations (parasitism, commensalism, mutualism)
parasitism
+/- similar to predation but parasitic which derives nourishment from the host, lives within the host for most of its life
commensalism
+/0 one species is benefited and the other is not affected (home, transportation, food)
mutualism
+/+ relationship where both species benefit (cleaning, symbiosis, protection)
ecological succession
a change within a community following a disturbance
primary succession
occurs in virtually lifeless area, where there were originally no organisms and where soil has not yet formed
secondary succession
occurs where an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact
pioneer species
the first species to begin succession of a newly disturbed sight (lichen, moss)
climax community
a community that undergoes little to no succession
trophic structure
the feeding relationships, flow of energy, food chain
autotrophs
(producers) obtain energy through inorganic substances (sun), either photosynthetic or chemosynthetic
photosynthetic autotrophs
autotrophs that use sunlight to transform energy
chemosynthetic autotrophs
use geothermal energy to transform energy
heterotrophs
(consumers) obtain energy through the consumption of organic substances (carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, detrivores), form food chains and food webs based on their feeding relationships
primary productivity
the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given time period
gross primary productivity
total primary production of an ecosystem, amount of light energy converted per unit time
net primary production
equal to gross primary production minus the energy used by the primary producers for respiration and other cellular tasks, represents storage of chemical energy that will be available to consumers
secondary production
amount of chemical energy in consumer's food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period
CHON
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, the chemical elements that make up 96% of life
1st law of thermodynamics
energy can neither be created nor destroyed
Water Cycle
plants absorb water, animals drink and eat plants, respire, transpire,and evaporate puts water into atmosphere, condensation causes precipitation
Carbon Cycle
found in atmosphere as CO2, photosynthesis, respiration, decomp of dead materials put carbon back into soil, burning fossil fuels puts CO2 back into atmosphere