• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the three major groups of helminths that infect humans?
What is the primary goal of antihelminth therapy?
reduction in the number of adult organisms by chemotherapy since most cannot complete their life cycles in human hosts
How do antihelminths act?
In 2 ways - locally to expel from GI and systemically
List the major antihelminthic classes
pyrantel pamoate
when is albendazole the DOC?
hydatid disease and cysticercosis
when is albendazole used?
most helminth infections
pinworm, hookworm
what is the MOA of albendazole?
inhibitis microtubule synthesis
when is albendazole use CI?
in pregnancy and children under 2
what is albendazole?
a broad spectrum oral antihelminthic
how is mebendazole used?
broad spectrum against nematodes
what specific infections is mebendazole approved for?
what is the MOA of mebendazole?
inhibits microtubule synthesis
when is mebendazole CI?
in pregnancy
use w/ caution in children under 2
when is mebendazole use cautioned?
in patients w/ cirrhosis and children under 2
when is thiabendazole used?
cutaneous larva migrans
early thichinosis
what is the moa of thiabendazole?
inhibitis microtubule synthesis
what is thiabendazole an alternative to?
ivermectin for strongyloidodis and cutaneous larva migrans
what are the common adverse effects of thiabendazole?
nausea, vomiting
what are the serious adverse effects of thiabendazole?
cns disturbances
erythema multiforme
stevens-johnson syndrome
when is thiabendazole CI?
kidney disease
liver disease
when is ivermectin used?
scrabies, lice, cutaneous larva migrans, ascaris
what is the MOA of ivermectin?
gaba agonists --> hyperpolarization --> paralysis of worm
how is ivermectin administered?
orally - doesnt penetrate CNS
when is ivermectin CI?
in patients w/ meninigitis
what is the mazotti reaction?
fever, headache, dizziness, somnolence, hypotension
when does the mazotti reaction come about?
when killing microfilaria
when should ivermectin use be cautioned?
when used w/ GABAergic enhancers (barbituares, benzodiazepines)
when is piperazine used?
alternative for ascariasis
what is the moa of piperazine?
gaba agonist
when is piperazine CI?
in patients w/ seizure disorders
what is pyrantel pamoate?
a broad specturm antihelmintic
when is pyrantel pamoate used?
pinworms, roundworms
what is the PK of pyrantel pamoate?
poorly absorbed orally --> exerts its effects in GI tract
what is the moa of pyrantel pamoate?
depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent --> release of ACh and inhibition of AChE --> paralyzed worm --> expelled
what are the AE of pyrantel pamoate?
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
what is diethylcarbamazine?
drug of choice for filariasis, loiasis, tropical eosinophillia
how does diethylcarbamazine work?
interacts w/ arachidonic acid pathway
what is doxycycline?
tetracycline antibiotic
when is doxycycline used as an antihelminth?
used against wucheria bancrofti and onchocerciasis
what is the moa of doxycyclin in antihelminths?
kills wolbachia by killing intracellular bacterial symbiont
when is praziquantel used?
DOC for schistosomiasis
what is the moa of praziquantel?
increases permeability of cell membrane to Ca --> paralysis --> dislodgement and death
what are the PK of praziquantel?
rapidly orally absorbed
distributed into CSF
excrteted in urine and bile
when is praziquantel CI?
pregnancy, nursing mothers
treatment of ocular cysticercosis
how are helminthi infections of the eye treated?
when is bithionol used?
doc for fasciolosis
alternative for pulmonary paragonimiasis
what is the moa of bithionol?
inhibition of ETC
what is niclosamide?
salicylamide derivative
when is niclosamide used?
second line drug for crestode infections
what is the moa of niclosamide?
inhibits mitochondrial anerobic phosphorylation of ADP
how is niclosamide administered?
w/ a laxative pre-admin to purge the boweel of all dead segments
what should be avoided w/ admin of niclosamide?
is niclosamide safe in pregnancy?
not established.
no established in children under 2