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50 Cards in this Set

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Historical archaeology

begins with written history

Prehistoric archaeology

how ancient people lived, nonrenewable cultural resources, and excavations with great care

overall goal of archaeology

reconstruction of past cultural systems

When we interpret some archaeological data by observing similar artifacts in use among living cultures, we call it:

Ethnographic analogy

Test pits are used to:
determine if a potential site is a site and to decide exactly where to dig
In terms of anthropological value, the single most important aspect of an archaeological dig is:
complete and accurate record-keeping
Which of the following is used to establish horizontal control at a site?

grid system

Non-removable artifacts, such as, hearts, pits, & walls are referred to by archaeologists as?

Features

An artifact is defined as?
An object made or modified by humans
Modern archaeologists' most fundamental desires are to?
Understand the human past
Historical archaeologists in American focus on?

Immigrants who arrived in the last 500 years

The first steps taken in most archaeological excavation is to:

Establish a datum & grid pattern system

"Middens" are an archaeological term for:
Ancient trash piles
Most of the artifacts that make up the archaeological record are
garbage

Which refers to a kind of artifact, but is differentiated because they cannot be easily removed from an archaeological site?

features

Pits are by far the most common

features

What do archaeologists and paleoanthropologists usually restrict their search to?

sites

What is created when the remnants of human activity are covered or buried by some natural process?

sites

What allows archaeologists to recover a full range of artifacts and other materials while only excavating a small portion of a site?

sampling

The "reading" of the archaeological record is called

analysis

What refers to the relationship between and among artifacts and other materials?

context

In anthropology, the term "culture" refers to
all the learned behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, values and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population

The anthropological attitude that a society's customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in the context of that society's problems and opportunities is called

cultural relativism

The opinion that one's own way of life is natural or correct and the only true way of being fully human is _______________.

ethnocentrism

An extended period during which the anthropologist gathers data is called __________________________.

fieldwork

A society's techniques for acquiring food resources it its:

Subsistence Pattern

science is:

a method of inquiry

In science, a proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon is called a(n):

hypothesis

To refer to something as a theory means that it:
has been well supported by scientific testing
A unique research strategy of anthropologists which involves learning the language and culture of a group by participating in the group's daily activities is called

participant observation

The systematic study of the material remains of human behavior in the past is conducted by:

archaeology

The portable material products of former societies are known as:

artifacts

_____ dating techniques place artifacts and sites in a general chronological order, though the exact date can be often unknown.

Archaeological

The context of an artifact is important for an archaeologist to know because:
context can reveal valuable information about the artifact's use, age, and relationship to other artifacts and features

Which of the following is not a Hollywood stereotype of archaeologists?

Archaeologists are trained professionals who try to reconstruct human behavior in the past

Although most anthropologists agree on where Native Americans originated, they disagree about:
when the population migrations actually took place
The site of Meadowcroft Rock Shelter has provided evidence to suggest that:
people were living in what is now the eastern US (near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) earlier than the well-dated "Clovis" people lived in North America
The durable aspects of culture such as tools, structures, and art are known as _______________.

material culture

Because it is something someone made, archaeologists like to say that a(n) _______________ is a product of human behavior.

artifact

The purpose of a grid system is _______________.
to record the exact location of an artifact accurately, both horizontally and vertically

Which of the following statements is incorrect?
none of the above is incorrect (all are correct)

A place that indicates the presence of human occupants in the past (for example, evidence of a temporary hunting camp or more permanent village) is called an archaeological _______________.

site

A system for recording the excavation of artifacts in which the excavation area is divided into squares and the contents of each square are carefully recorded is called _______________.

a grid system

Archaeologists get clues about how an artifact was used by _______________.
analyzing its shape and signs of wear and tear

Which of the following is not true of science?

It always provides the right answer to a question.

It is essential that archaeologists take abundant, accurate, and detailed field notes during excavations because:
Archaeology destroys data as it is gathered; once a site is excavated it cannot be re-excavated.

A test excavation would be most appropriate in which of the following situations?
When trying to determine a site's potential for answering a research question.

When archaeologists dig excavation units, they are concerned with:

all of the above

Why do archaeologists use a datum point rather than simply measuring from the ground surface?
The datum point provides a universal reference point that can be used across any archaeological site, allowing archaeologists to easily compare data between excavations.

The reading of the archaeological record is

analysis