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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

According to the text, play displays which of the following concepts in linguistics and cognition?


Some scholars have proposed that play is connected with

the repair of developmental damage caused by injury or trauma

Metacommunication refers to

communication about communication itself

A cognitive boundary that marks certain behaviors as "play" or as "ordinary life" is called


Critical thinking about the way one thinks is called


In an example discussed in the text, Elizabeth Chinn claims that when African American girls in New Haven, Connecticut, give their white dolls hairstyles like their own, they are

reconfiguring boundaries of race and challenging social construction of their blackness and of race itself

A Javanese artist makes a puppet of the great mythic hero Arjuna out of water buffalo hid for use in the shadow puppet plays called "wajang." This is an example of what the text calls


According to Shelly Errington, as cited in the text, "art by appropriation" includes

all objects that became art because certain people at a certain point in time decided they were art

Ian Condry's study of hip hop in Japan showed that

Japanese cultural practices don't stop or disappear because they conform to hip hop style; topics of the music speak to them somehow; repeated theme that youth needs to speak out for themselves

The term anthropologists use for stories that recount how various aspects of the world came to be the way they are is


The anthropologist who argued that myths serve as "charters" or "justifications" for present-day social arrangements was

Bronislaw Malinowski

The anthropologist who argued that myths are tools for overcoming logical contradictions that cannot otherwise be overcome was

Claude Levi-Strauss

Which of the following does not reflect the anthropological understanding of ritual?

-that it's not exclusively religious in nature

-it IS: repetitive social practices through sequences of symbolic activities; shapes action and thought; ideas become concrete

What are the three stages of rites of passage?

separation, transition, reaggregation

The ambiguous transitional state in a rite of passage in which the person undergoing the ritual is outside his or her ordinary social position is called


An intense comradeship in which the social distinctions among participants in a rite of passage disappear or become irrelevant is called


Encompassing pictures of reality created by the members of a particular society are called


The ideas and practices that postulate reality beyond that which is immediately available to the senses are known in anthropology as


When nearly every act of everyday life is ritualized and other forms of behavior are strongly discouraged, anthropologists and religious scholars sometimes speak of

orthopraxy ("correct practice")

Religious practitioners skilled in the practice of religious rituals, which they carry out for the benefit of the group, are known as


Invisible forces to which people address questions and whose responses they believe to be truthful are called


For the Azande, witchcraft...

is a completely natural explanation for unfortunate events; witchcraft was an actual substance in a person (located under the sternum)

The socially recognized ties that connect people in a variety of different ways are called


Kinship relationships based primarily on nurturance are examples of


Which of the following terms do anthropologists use to refer to the observable physical characteristics that distinguish the two kinds of human beings, male and female, needed for human biological reproduction


The so-called berdache of many indigenous North American societies is an example of supernumerary sex (T/F)


Which of the following distinguishes a bilateral kindred from a lineage?

bilateral includes both sides (paternal and maternal); lineage is unilineal (one side or the other)

A descent group formed by members who believe they have a common (sometimes mythical) ancestor is a


Which of the following would not belong to a man's matrilineage

would include mother-child lineages only (ex: would not include brother's children)

The kinship tie created by marriage is called


In Zumbagua, Ecuador, a woman's biological tie to her offspring is

no greater than a man's biological tie to his

According to anthropologist Lesley Sharp, which of the following statements is correct?

Organ donors' families can be partially healed/find closure by meeting organ recipients; also, the donor's mother gains an important new kinship status

Consanguineal relationships are connections based on

descent / blood ties

Following a marriage, the kin of the husband and the kin of the wife are linked by


The postmarital residence rule requiring a couple to live with or near the husband's mother's brother is called

avunculocal residence

A spousal pattern in which a woman may have multiple husbands is called


the wealth transferred, usually from parents to daughter, at the time of her marriage is a


For anthropologists, a nuclear family is made up of

2 generations (parents and unmarried children)

Which of the following statements describes the relationship of Mende women toward her children

dependent; level of children's education matters because her claim to husband's property and any hope for a future after he dies comes through them

Which of the following statements describes divorce among the Inuit?

it may be deactivated, but it is never dissolved; results in more connections, not less (because of cohusbands, cowives)

The relatively "unofficial" bonds that people construct with one another that tend to be personal, affective, and often a matter of choice are collectively referred to as


Comparative information on human sexual practices worldwide suggests that

practice are different everywhere (none of the above)

Which of the following describes the Nicaraguan cochon, according to Roger Lancaster?

they are never victims of hate crimes; they are very much admired as performers during Carnival; they adopt cochon identity after consistently losing out in competition for male status

According to Cymene Howe, which of the following statements about same sex female practices in Nicaragua is correct?

-women's same-sexuality is not as publicly visible as men's

-revolutionary activists were now sex rights activists

-femininas in relationships with cochonas weren't necessarily seen as lesbians

According to medical anthropologists, a state of physical, emotional, and mental well-being, together with an absence of disease or disability that would interfere with such well-being is called


Sicknesses (and the therapies to relieve them) that are unique to a particular cultural group are called

culture bound syndromes

Which of the following terms do medical anthropologists use to refer to Western forms of medical knowledge and practice based on biological science?


Which of the following is the term used by medical anthropologists to refer to the combined effects on a population of more than one disease, which are exacerbated by poor nutrition, social instability, violence, and other stressful environmental factors?


Human cultural practices influenced by natural selection on genes that affect human health are called

biocultural adaptations

Some scientific observers connect the ability to absorb lactose successfully to what cultural practices?

family history of raising dairy cattle

Which of the following statements correctly describes the findings of T.M. Luhrmann and her colleagues regarding the effects of spiritual disciplines?

they're skilled practices; a focus on inner imagery gave people the peace/presence mentioned in the Bible; practicing prayer is actually good for people and has no mental disturbance

According to Tom Boellstorff, which experience of the self do fans of Second Life regularly experience?

dividual self

A story told by sufferers (sometimes together with their caregivers) that explains the source of an individual's suffering is called

illness narratives

According to Jessica Gregg, what was it that poor women in Recife, Brazil, who were diagnosed with cervical cancer, feared the most?

social exclusion; cervical cancer was thought to be a sign of sexual promiscuity

Which of the following terms did Gaur and Patniak use to describe Korwa understandings of health, which do not fit easily into biomedical framework?

experiential health

According to Paul Farmer, the fact that poor Haitian women are more likely to die of AIDS and poor Haitian men are more likely to die of violent injury is an illustration of what he calls

"structural violence" ; "exemplary fashion" ; "modal suffering"

Violence that results from the way that political and economic forces structure risk for various forms of suffering within a population is called

structural violence

Medical anthropologists argue that a more accurate way to refer to Western biomedical systems adopted by people in non-Western societies around the world is

cosmopolitan medicine

Alternative medical systems based on practices of local sociocultural groups are called

ethnomedical systems

In the 1970s in Guider, Cameroon, a man and his wife were seeking therapy for infertility. They went first to the local biomedical clinic, then to a local Muslim practitioner, and finally to a traditional non-Muslim healer living outside of town. This pattern of successive medical consultation is called

medical pluralism or hierarchies of resort

The physical toll that inequality takes on people's bodies is called

embodied inequality

Which of the following recommendations did Paul Farmer and Jim Yong Kim make to the medical community, based on their experiences delivering antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in Haiti and Rwanda through Partners in Health?

1) ARVs should be universally available and free

2) ARV therapy must be imbedded in the healthcare infrastructure of the government

3) more trained healthcare providers were needed

4) programs to relieve poverty must be instituted if ARV therapy among the poor is to succeed

Which of the following terms describes social identities based on a shared medical diagnosis


Which of the following statements describes what medical anthropologist Rebecca Marsland found when she studied how antiretroviral therapy was being localized in rural Tanzania in 2009?

-AIDS sufferers did not organize around biosocial status

-AIDS sufferers did not separate individual well-being from well-being of their family

-potential for AIDS activism and sense of biological citizenship is undermined by a legal regime, inherited from the colonial period which strictly controlled grassroots organizing

The reshaping of local conditions by powerful worldwide forces on an every-intensifying scale is the concept of


The idea that some cultures dominate others and that domination by one culture leads inevitably to the destruction of subordinated cultures and their replacement by the culture of those in power is called

cultural imperialism

Since the days of Franz Boas, anthropologists who study processes of cultural borrowing have emphasized that

borrowing cultural forms or practices always involves borrowing with modification; they adapt what they borrow for local purposes and rarely accept ideas without domestication or indigenizing them/reconciling them with local practices

Many observers have suggested that globalization inevitably undermines the power and sovereignty of nation-states. Why?

1) national governments can't control what citizens see/hear in the media

2) nation-states allow migrants, students, and tourists to cross borders because they need their labor, tuition, or vacation expenditures, but in doing so must contend with political values, religious commitments, or families they bring with them

Migrant populations with a shared identity who live in a variety of different locales around the world are called


Members of a diaspora organized in support of nationalist struggles in their homeland or to agitate for a state of their own are known as

long-distance nationalists

A form of state in which it is claimed that those people who left the country and their descendants remain part of their ancestral state, even if they are citizens of another state, is said to be a

transborder state

A group made up of citizens of a country who continue to live in their homeland plus the people who have emigrated from the country and their descendants, regardless of their current citizenship, make up a

transborder citizenry

A nation-state in which the relationships between citizens and the state extend to wherever citizens reside is a

transnational nation-state

Aihwa Ong writes that wealthy overseas Chinese elites are loyal to the family business, not whichever nation-state they are living in. She calls this

postnational ethos

According to Erazo, which of the following statements is true about territorial citizenship in Rukullakta?

indigenous people can be agents of governmentality

Arguments that pit human rights against culture depend on the assumption that

"cultures" are homogenous, bounded, and unchanging sets of ideas and that each society only has 1 culture, which its members are obligated to follow (all of the above)

To argue that all peoples have a human right to maintain their own distinct culture is to assume that

universal human rights do exist

In discussions of the right to culture in international treaties, responsibility for defending the culture of the rights-bearing person is

up to the national government/nation-state

In order to fit the way human rights laws are written, indigenous people often have to

understand how the law operates

In 2002, after the Sangatte transit center closed, asylum seekers who came to France discovered the

subordination of asylum to humanitarianism and immigration policy

The idea that some cultures dominate others, leading to the destruction of the subordinated cultures and their replacement by the culture of those in power, is called

cultural imperialism

Anthropological studies of social, political, and economic change provide considerable evidence that

humans actively and resiliently respond to life's challenges

Why, according to some anthropologists, is the concept of cultural hybridity ALMOST a good idea?

1) people who celebrate culture hybridization ignore that its effects are experienced differently by people in power vs. people w/out power

2) also different experience of multiculturalism for elite and nonelite (ignores/dismisses nonelite struggles)

3) doesn't free anthropologists from commitment to existence of bounded, unchanging cultures

According to Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, which of the following statements about how a strong Indonesian environmental movement came into existence is true?

The Indonesian environmental movement was an amalgam of odd parts: engineers, nature lovers, reformers, and technocrats

Which of the following statements accurately represents Arjun Appadurai's understanding of secularism in India?

-effective in preventing religious strife (indigenized and domesticated secularism)

-resisting violent religious polarization

-multicultural, cosmopolitan