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33 Cards in this Set

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What does the term 'princeps' mean?
A latin word meaning 'first citizen', and was the offical title of the Roman Emperor. The princeps senatus was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate. Although officially out of the cursus honorum and owning no imperium, this office brought enormous prestige to the senator holding it. It was first used by Caesar Augustus.
What does the term 'dyrachy' mean?
A form of government run by two independent authorities. For example, Augustus and the Senate
What does the term 'tetrachy' mean?
The term tetrachy describes any system of government where power is divided among four individuals. For example, the system set up by Diocletian with two 'caesars' and two 'augusti'.
What is the definiton of 'christians'?
A religious person who believes Jesus is the Christ and who is a member of a Christian denomination. For example, a member of the catholic church is a christian.
What does 'senate' mean?
The state council of the ancient Roman republic and empire, which shared legislative pwer with the popular assemblies, administraion with the magistracies, and judicial power with the knights.
What is the definiton of 'publicani'?
Publicani were public contractors, in which role they often supplied the Roman legions and military, managed the collection of port duties, and oversaw public building projects.
What does the term 'manumission' mean?
The act of liberating a slave from bondage. For example, a patrician may release a slave for good behaviour.
What is the definition of Augustus?
Augustus, Latin for 'majestic', 'the increaser', or 'venerable', was an Ancient Roman title, which was first held by Caesar Augustus and subsequently came to be considered one of the title of what are now known as the Roman Emperors. The feminine form is Augusti.
What does 'pax romana' mean?
The peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire. It was a 200 year period of relative peace ushered in during the reign of Augustus.
What does the term 'proscriptions' mean?
A term used for the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. Proscription implies the elimination of political rivals or personal enemies, and the term is frequently used in connection with violent revolutions.
What were the major periods of Roman history?
The Early pre-republican age (c.750-500), the Republic (c.500-27BC) and the Empire (27BC - AD476).
What were the main social classes in ancient Rome?
The Patricians, or the wealthy class; the Plebeians, the common people; Equites, the bussinessmen; Freedmen, the freed slaves; and Slaves, people seized or enslaved for particular reasons and forced to work as a labourer.
What were the main officals listed in the cursus honorum?
Consul (one of two jointly annually elected chief magistrates who jointly ruled the empire), Censors (tabluated offical census of officals and assessed taxes and military obligation of each male citizen), Praetor (designated the supreme administer of justice in Rome), Quaestor (oversaw treasury), Tribune (10 elected officals representing the plebeian class), Aediles (assissted Tribunes)
What were the twelve tables?
The Twelve Tables were tablets summarising specific laws plebs felt patrician consuls might interpret against the interest of the plebeian litigants.
Which issues did tablet 3 deal with?
Trial procedure and the issue of Roman citizens becoming slaves
What issues did tablets 4-7 deal with?
Family, wills, ownerhsip and inheritance.
What did tablet 8 deal with?
Slander and torts
What issues did tablets 9 through to 12 deal with?
Specific crimes that broke public and sacred laws
Who were the members of the Second Triumvirate, and what was it?
The Second Triumvirate was a coalition formed between Octavian, Antony and Lepidus, who became sole rulers of Rome. The purpose of the alliance was to set the state in order.
What was the Battle of Actium?
The Battle of Actium was a battle between the fleets of Antony and Octavian in 31BC. They met through near Actium and Antony was defeated by Octavian.
What wa the purpose of proscriptions?
To confiscate estates in order to have money and land for troops and to destroy enemies.
What is the significance of Cicero and the Philippics?
In a series of five speeches and pamphlets, Cicero attacked Antony as a blookthirsty dictator. The purpose behind the Philippics was to restore the reupbilc.
What were the consitutional settlements of Augustus?
There were three settlements; the first settlement in 27BC, the second settlement in 28BC and the third settlement in 19-18BC. During these settlements Augustus was bestowed with numerous titles from the Senate.
What were the main aspects of the principate?
Augustus created a form of government known as a dyrachy, or joint rule between himself and the Senate. He introduced reforms that affected civil service, the senatorial class, the equestrian order and the freedmen.
What titles did Octavian gain during his reign?
Power of imperium, Proconsular pwer, Tribunicia postestas, right of making war or peace, Imperator, Princeps Senatus, Pontifex maximus and Pater patriae
What was the 'Res Gatae' and why was it important?
The acts/deeds of the Divine Augustus. It was Octavians official record of his reign engraved on two bronze plaques. These records were erected throughtout the empire, and are a valuable source on Augustus.
What was the Praetorian guard?
An elite corp of 9000 men, who were stationed near Rome and whose functions were to protect Augustus and defend Rome. They were paid 3 times as much as legionares and were commanded by prefects of the equestrian rank.
Why was the pax romana important?
Foreign expeditions during the Republic had been breeding grounds for military rebellions, and Augustus realised foreign warfare put pressure on public finances. He decided that the Roman Empire should remain within the boundaries he had established. The Empire flourished economically and socially.
Who were the key personalies of this period?
Mark Antony &Lepidus, who were members of the 2nd triumvirate; Tiberius, Gaius Caligula, Claudius & Nero, who were the four Julio-Claudians; Trajan, Hadrian, Diocletian & Vespasion, who were four of the five good emperors, and Cicero, who was a senator and historian killed for his works.
What were some of the main Social Reforms Augustus introduced?
The Julian laws, which discouraged divorcem making adultery a public offence, and eliminated clas barriers to marriage. Lex Junia Norbana, which created an intermediate status for freedmen with other limited civil rights. Lex Fufia Carninia limited the number of slaves that could be freed by a master and the Lex Aelia Sentia created restrictions on manumission. Freedmen were debarred from the cursus honorum.
What were the main religious reforms introduced by Augustus?
Augustus revived traditional Roman relgion, banishing oriental cults and restoring state cults instead. Old Roman gods and secular games were revived, and the worship of Augustus was forbidden in Rome.
What were the financial reforms of Augustus?
Augustus made suret he Aerarium remained the public treasury, and ordered a census to be fair in taxation, through assessment of property. He established his own personal treasuries (known as fisci) as well as a military treasury to pay his veterans. Introduced new taxes; 1% sales tax & 5% inheritance tax for payment to veterans. The Senate minted only copper coins, and all coins bore the letter SC - senatus consulto (by decree of the Senate). The imperial mint was established in Gaul, which produced gold and silver coinage.
What important military reforms did Augustus introduce?
The praetorian guard was established, which was an elite corp of 9000 men, paid 3 times as much as legionares and commanded by prefects of the equestrian rank. Their functions wer to protect Augustus and defend Rome. The guard eventually became aware of their powers to make/break Roman Emperors.