• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The space between the superficial & deep layers of the greater omentum is the _______.
omental bursa
The space in the peroitoneal cavity dorsal to the deep leaf & bordering the rumen on the left is the _______.
supraomental recess.
What structures project into the omental bursa?
ventral sac of the rumen
What structures are located in the supraomental recess?
intestines, gravid uterus during late pregnancy
The lesser omentum is similar in what species?
Pig & dog
Where does the lesser omentum extend from & go to in the ruminant?
extends from the lesser curvature of the abomasum to the dorsal portion of the liver on the visceral side.
What are the 3 major functions of the omentum?
Attaches the stomach to the bodywall.
Produces WBCs under certain conditions
Policeman of the peritoneal cavity
What are the 3 segments of the gastric groove?
reticular groove, omasal groove, abomasal groove
What is the most cranial segment of the fore-stomach?
reticulum (honeycomb)
How does milk run in young animals?
From the cardia through the gastric groove into the abomasum.
What are the remnants of the ventral mesogastrium?
Lesser omentum, falciform ligament, median ligament of the urinary bladder
Where does the reticular groove extend to?
From the cardia on the lesser curvature (the right wall) of the reticulum to the reticulo-omasal orifice
What is the reticular groove comprised of?
A floor of the reticular groove & 2 lips (left & right).
The gastric groove is not involved in ________, ________ or _________.
swallowing, regurgitation or eructation
Where in the reticulum does auscultation occur when examining for hardware disease?
The ventral aspects of the left 6th or 7th intercostal spaces.
What side of the ruminant is the omasum not seen?
The omasum is also known as _____.
Where is the transverse omasal pillar located?
At the omaso-abomasal orfice (through the neck)
What do you call the two mucosal folds that guard the omaso-abomasal opening?
abomasal vela
_________ are covered with short papillae which are parallel, leaf-like structures that project into the interior form the wall of the omasum.
omasum laminae
The __________ is at the base of the omasum & joins the reticulo-omasal ostium to the omaso-abomasal ostium.
omasal groove
The mucosa of the abomasum contains __________.
gastric grooves
What forms the abomasal groove?
lesser curvature of the abomasum which as no folds
Mucosa in the abomasum contain large oblique _________ in the fundus & body.
abomasal folds
__________ are found in great numbers in the blinds sacs of the rumen.
ruminal papillae
_________ are found in the laminae of the omasum.
Omasal papillae
What are grazers?
Animals such as bovine & ovine whose diet consist of grass
WHat are browsers?
Animals such as antelope & goats whose diet consists leaves.
Why is the fore-stomach of browsers smaller than that of grazers?
B/c the leaves that browsers eats are more nutritious & contain less fiber than grass maker their stomachs smaller.
Browers or Grazers have larger livers and more bulky intestines.
Where are the small intestines located compared to the rumen?
displaced to the right by the rumen & mainly in the supraomental recess.
Which species has the largest & most complex large intestines?
Which species have no bands nor haustra in the large intestines?
horse & pig
What is the main differences in the large intestines of the horse & pig?
cecum & ascending colon
WHat is a cecum & what are its parts?
A cylindrical, long, tubular, smooth blind sac, part of the large intestine.

base, body, apex
_______ has the largest diameter of the large intestine.
_______ is the larger part of the large intestine & displays three segments in ruminants.
ascending colon
What are the 3 segments of the ascending colon?
s-shaped proximal loop
spiral loop
distal loop
How large is the spiral loop in the ox compared to the sheep & goat?
2.5 turns/gyri of both coils in the ox.
sheep- 3
Goat- 4
What are the main species difference on the location of the jejunal lymph nodes?
bovine- they lie bt. coils of jejunum & the last centrifugal coil

Sheep/goat- lie bt. the last centrifugal coil & first centripetal coil.
Fecal pellets in the sheep/goat may appear what shape?
______ lies obliquely in the abdominal part of the thoracic cage.
Left lobe of the liver is found in what position?
Right lobe of the liver is found in what position?
No external indication of lobation in the liver is common in what species?
_________ is pear shaped in the Ox & elongated in the sheep.
gall bladder
Why is the liver found mainly to the right towards the median plain & rotated 90 degrees?
b/c of the rumen
__________ runs over the diaphragmatic surface of the liver, through the notch of the round ligament, to the diaphragm where it attaches.
falciform ligament
What attachment is not median in position b/c the liver is displaced 90 degrees to the right of the median plain, by the rumen.
falciform ligament
What two things join together to form the common bile duct?
common hepatic duct joins the cystic duct
What Latin equivalent for common bile duct?
ductus choledochus
Where does the common bile duct open through?
major duodenal papilla
How long is the common bile duct in the bovine?
50-70 mm distal to the pylorus
How long is the common bile duct in the sheep?
30-40 mm distal to the pylorus, along with the major pancreatic duct.
In what species do the accessory pancreatic duct open into the minor duodenal papilla?
In what species do the major pancreatic duct open into the major duodenal papilla?
Compare the difference in shape of the spleen in the ox & sheep/goat.
Ox: flattened; spatulate or tongue-shaped

Sheep/goat- flattened; rectangular or triangular in shape
THe spleen is red-brown in what species?
The spleen is blue/grey in what species?
What is the general location of the kidneys?
Rt. kidney- T13 to L3
Lft. kidney- L3 to L5
What is the shape & structure of the kidney in the small ruminant?
renal crest
In what species is the kidney lobated w/ 18-20 lobes, no renal crest or renal pelvis?
______ kidney of the ox is flattened & oval & is related ventrally to the colon.
The _______ kidney of the ox is slightly twisted, pointed cranially & displaced to the right by the rumen.
Internally what do the lobes of the kidney in the ox form, what distinct characteristic does it have & how are they drained?
renal papillae
minor renal calices
Calices are drained by cranial & caudal collecting ducts called _______ & join to form the ureter.
major calyces
What are the 3 unpaired arteries off the abdominal aorta that supply the abdominal cavity?
Cranial Mesenteric
Caudal Mesenteric
What are the 3 main divisions of the celiac artery?
Left gastric
What are the branches of the left gastric artery?
left gastroepiploic
accessory reticular
What are the main branches of the hepatic artery?
right gastric
What does the gastroduodenal artery divide into/
cranial pancreaticduodenal
right gastroepiploic
What are the main branches of the splenic artery?
left ruminal
right ruminal
Which artery that supplies blood to the abdomen may arise independently from the aorta & is located caudal to the celiac artery?
cranial mesenteric
What are the 4 main features of the cranial mesenteric artery in the bovine?
It is very long
extensive anastomoses
a collateral branch
Ileocolic artery
What does the ileocolic artery branch off of & what organs does it supply blood to?
cranial mesenteric

supplies the ileum, cecum & ascending colon.
What are the major branches of the caudal mesenteric artery?
left colic artery that supplies the descending colon

The cranial rectal artery that supplies the rectum.
What are the autonomic nerves of the abdomen?
sympathetic trunk
the vagus trunk
The _______ nerve supplies the fore-stomach via the dorsal & ventral vagal trunks.
The _______ innervates the rumen & visceral surface of the reticulum, omasum & abomasum.
dorsal vagal trunk
The _________ innervates the parietal surface of the reticulum, omasum & abomasum.
ventral vagal trunk
What are the 4 lymphocenters of the abdomen?
lumbar, celiac, cranial mesenteric & caudal mesenteric
What lymph nodes lie along the route of the aorta & caudal vena cava?
What make up the jejunal, colic & cecal lnn?
cranial mesenteric lymph nodes
_________ lnn. in the bovine are a prominent chain found along side mesenteric surface of jejunal coils.
jejunal lnn.
In the sheep where do the jejunal lnn. lie between?
the last centrifugal & first centripetal coils of the spiral colon.
The ______ of the pelvis in the bovine is about 45 degrees.
The iliac shafts of the pelvis in the cow are _______.
The tuber ischiadicum of the pelvis in the cow is _________.
The pelvic floor of the pelvis in the cow is ______.
How are the linear measurements of the tuber coxae, acetabulum & tuber ischiadicum in the pelvis?
They are nearly equal.
What are the 5 conventional dimensions (pelvimetry) used in evaluating the birth canal?
conjugate diameter
transverse diameter
vertical diameter
pelvic inclination
pelvic axis
What are 3 muscles of the pelvic girdle?
psoas minor
quadratus lumborum
______ is a primer mover that advances the hind limb.
________ is the caudal wall closing off the pelvic outlet (caudal pelvic aperture)
What seperates the anal region from the urogenital region of the perineum?
a line joining the tuber ischiadica
What are the borders of the perineum?
caudal vertebrae
caudal borders of the sacraltuberal ligaments
Ischiadic tubers & ischiadic arch
What is the anal triangle closed off by?
pelvic diaphragm
What comprises the pelvic diaphragm?
coccygeus & levator ani muscles, their int. & ext. deep fasciae & external anal sphincter
What closes off the urogenital triangle?
the perineal membrane & the urogenital muscles
What forms the lateral wall of the urogenital triangle?
contrictor vestibuli, constrictor vulvae & retractor clitoridis
Name the 3 major urigenital muscles?
contrictor vestibuli,
constrictor vulvae
retractor clitoridis
What aqre the 2 most important perineal muscles?
retractor muscles
What are the two parts of the retractor penis muscle?
rectal & penile
_________ m. is used to determine sex of dressed carcass.
What are the 3 major muscles of the hip & gluteal regions?
tensor fasciae latae
superficial gluteal
middle gluteal
When the superficial gluteal m. fuses with the biceps femoris m. in the bovine its called _______.
The deep part of the middle gluteal m., in ungulates, is a seperate muscle called ________.
accessory gluteal
The gluteal muscle is smaller in the bovine than in what other species?
The ________ m. is small & fuses with the biceps femoris m. (gluteobiceps)
superfical gluteal
Which species has no internal obturator muscle?
What is the shape of the rump of the bovine & why is it shaped that way?
concaved b/c the hamstring muscles have no vertebral heads.
What is the blind sac at the junction between the pelvic & penile parts of the urethra called?
urethral recess
In female ruminants there is a __________ which shares a common opening with the urethra into the vaginal vestibule.
suburethral diverticulum
What is the difference in position of the epididymus in the bovine/ovine?
Bovine-medial aspect of testes

Ovine- caudalmedial aspect of the testis
__________ lies cranial to the mesorchium on the medial border of the testis
ductus deferens
________ (ductus deferens & vesicular duct) opens into the urethra through the colliculus seminalis
ejaculatory duct
What are the accessory sex glands of the bovine/ovine?
vesicular gland
prostate gland
bulbourethral gland
What are the 3 parts of the penis?
root, body, & glans
In __________ (species) corpus spongiosum & corpus cavernosum penis are as in the dog, w/o the os penis.
In _________ (species), the penis is the fibroelastic type.
In _________ (species) glans penis is slightly twisted anticlockwise to the left causing the urethral groove & penile raphe to lie to the right in this region.
Why do bulls take their time urinating?
The terminal part of their urethra (urethral process) is tubular & attaches to glans, narrowing the external urethral opening.
In the bull, the body of the penis forms an S-shaped _______ in the thigh region, caudal to the neck of the scrotum.
sigmoid flexure
How does the penis differ from the bull to the ovine species?
They are similar except the urethral process projects beyond glans making it longer in sheep
Rams penis differs from the goat inter alia by _________.
tuberculum spongiosum
______ is a shealth composed of two portions.
The prepuce
What are the 2 portions of the prepuce?
external (hairy) & internal (hairless) lamina
What causes phimosis in the bull?
long prepuce, int. lamina may be overdeveloped & prolapse through preputal orfice causing it to narrow & prevent the penis to extend.
Where is the ovary located in the ruminant?
ventrolateral border of pelvic inlet
_______ (species) have ovaries that are relatively small w/ follicles & corpora lutea that project ABOVE the surface.
The _______ of the uterus of the cow increases in diameter as you go caudally.
uterine horn
________ are formed by median walls b/w non-fused cranial portions of uterine tubes into uterine body.
uterine velum
Dorsal & ventral __________ attach both uterine horns transversely & cranially to the uterine velum.
intercornuate ligaments
What are caruncles?
Raised structures with convex surfaces on endometrium lining of uterine horns.
Fetal membranes attach, by means of __________, to caruncles, forming __________.
cotyledons, placentomes
What is a another name for circular folds?
(plicae circulares)
The mucosa of the __________ has 3 to 4 prominent circular folds plus smaller longitudinal folds.
cervix uteri
The caudal circular fold forms __________ which projects into the vagina.
porto vaginalis
Porto vaginalis projects into the vagina, producing a dorsal (deeper & ventral _________.
vaginal fornices
What are some special characteristics of the uterus in the ewe?
single intercornulate ligament
caruncles are concave & pigmented in the sheep.
How many circular folds in the Ewe?
6 circular folds but the vaginal portio embeds in the vaginal floor making it difficult to pass instruments through the cervix.
How many circular folds do the cow & ewe have, respectfully?
cow- 3 to 4 that are prominent
ewe- 6
What happens to the suspensory ligament of the ovary in the cow?
completely involuted in the cow
What lies between the ovary & the uterine tube?
ovarian bursa
The round ligament of the uterus is well developed in the dog but absent in _________.
What are the 3 parts of the broad ligament?
The broad ligament is _______ in the cow?
The caudal part of the vaginal tube in the cow is _________.
The ________ glands (Bartholin's glands) are only found in the cow & the queen & could be absent in the ewe.
major vestibular glands
_________ glands appear in two rows on either side of the ventral midline & maybe absent in the ewe, more caudally situated in the cow.
minor vestibular glands
What is the visible part of the clitoris called?
glans clitoridis
The ______ pair of mammae only develop in anthropoids & elephants.
The ______ pair of mammae only develop in ungulates
_________ teats may be found on the caudo-ventral surface of the udder in the cow or on the cranial surface of the mammae in the ewe & doe.
The mamma has ______ & a _____.
body, teat
How many mammae does a cow have?
4 (inguinal)
How many mammae do small ruminants have?
2 (inguinal)
What 2 species have only inguinal mammae?
horse & cow
What species develop thoracoinguinal mammae?
What is the shape of the mammae in the cow, ewe (mare)
What is the shape of the mammae in the nanny goat?
pendulous & sac-like
WHat happens when the number of teats in the female is abnormally high?
polythelia or supernumerary (accessary) teats.
An increase in the usual number of teats is called ________.
___________ groove is found between left & right halves of the udder.
median intermammary groove
Where might inguinal mammae extend to?
from the umbilicus to the labia
________ groove of the mammae is poorly defined between fore & hind quarter.
transverse intermammary groove
What are the 3 tissue layers of the teat?
middle layer
inner tissue
The inner tissue layer of the teat is referred as ________.
lactiferous sinus
What leads to hard milking?
exhuberant folds & the papillary opening has a papillary sphincter of smooth muscle & elastic tissue that may be too tight.
Exuberent folds that develop from longitudinal folds that radiate into the lactiferious sinus are called _______.
Rosette of Furstenberg
What are the 2 parts of the lactiferous sinus?
glandular sinus (gland cistern)
papillary sinus (teat cistern)