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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Where are the 2 sagittal planes and what are their names?

Midclavicular planes. From midpoint of clavicles down to midinguinal points

What are the 2 horizontal planes and where are they?

Subcostal plane-through bottom of 10th costal cartilage. transtubercular plane-through iliac tubercles

Where is the transpyloric plane? What does it pass through?

Horizontal through L1 vertebra. Fundus of gallbladder, neck of pancreas, origins of superior mesenteric artery, hepatic portal vein, root of transverse mesocolon, duodenojejunal junction, hila of kidneys

Where is the interspinous plane?

Passes horizontally through ASIS

Where do quadratus lumborum, psoas, and iliacus muscles attach? What do they do?

Quadratus lumborum- superiorly-last rib, lumbar vertebrae, inferiorly-iliac crest. Psoas-superiorly-thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, inferiorly-lesser trochanter of femur. Iliacus-superiorly-iliac Crest, inferiorly-lesser trochanter of femur

Where is the transversus abdominis muscle?

Posterior part of abdominal wall. Attaches to 7-12 coastal cartilages, iliac crest, contributes to Linea alba

What forms the posterior leaf of rectus sheath? What are it's lateral and inferior borders?

Aponeurosis of anterior portion of transversus abdominus muscle. Lateral-linea semilunaris, inferior-linea arcuata

Where are the rectus abdominus muscles? What is their function?

Attach to public symphysis and pubic crest, superiorly attach to xiphoid process and 5-7 coastal cartilages. They flex the trunk

What is the relationship between transversus abdominal muscle and rectus abdominus muscles?

Above the ASIS-anterior aponeurosis of transversus abdominus passes deep to rectus abdominus, below the ASIS it's the opposite

What do the tendinous insertions of the rectus abdominus muscles attach to?

Aponeurosis of anterior portion of transversus abdominus, aponeurosis of internal abdominal oblique, aponeurosis of external oblique

Where is the inguinal ligament?

It runs from the pubic tubercle to the ASIS

Where does the internal oblique attach?

In the back-thoracolumbar aponeurosis. In front-iliac crest, inguinal ligament. Attaches to inferior borders of 10-12 ribs, Linea alba

What makes up the conjoint tendon and where is it?

The fused aponeurosis of internal abdominal oblique and transversus abdominus. Attaches to pubic bone

What is the cremasteric fascia?

Extension of internal oblique that surrounds the internal spermatic fascia. Made of skeletal muscle fibers

What is the pyramidalis? Where is it?

Insignificant muscles that 80% of people have. In rectus sheath below rectus abdominus

What makes up the posterior leaf of rectus sheath? Anterior leaf?

Posterior leaf- above ASIS, aponeurosis of transversus abdominus and internal oblique go posterior to rectus abdominus. Anterior-below ASIS, aponeurosis of transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique go anterior to rectus abdominus.

Where is the external abdominal oblique?

Superficial to internal oblique. Originates from iliac crest and the superficial surfaces of ribs 5-12. Attaches to inguinal ligament. Aponeurosis attaches to tendinous intersections of rectus abdominus and forms the anterior leaf and attaches to Linea alba

What makes up the spermatic cord and what muscles do the parts come from?

Outer layer is the external spermatic fascia (extension of external oblique), next layer is cremasteric fascia (extension of internal oblique), inside is the internal spermatic fascia tube (extension of transversalis fascia) which terminates as a testicle

Describe the "fixed posterior" digastric muscle.

Made up of internal oblique and contralateral external oblique. When they contract it twists the trunk. They can also bend the trunk laterally. Requires posterior and anterior leaves. Below the ASIS the posterior leaf does not exist and contraction only causes compression of abdominal contents.

What artery turns into the superior epigastric artery? When does the name change? What does it anastomose with?

Internal thoracic artery. After it pierces the thoracic diaphragm. Inferior deep epigastric artery

What do the superior and inferior epigastric arteries pass through?

Between rectus abdominus and posterior leaf of rectus sheath

Where do the iliohypogastric nerves branch from? What do they innervate?

L1. Pubis (anterior cutaneous branch), part of gluteal region and upper thigh (lateral cutaneous branch)

What arteries supply the rectus rectus abdominus muscle? When do these arteries enter the rectal sheath? What will happen if there is bleeding from these arteries?

Superior and inferior epigastric arteries. Arcuate line. Bleeding will be contained in rectus sheath between muscle and posterior leaf of sheath, transversalis fascia will be pushed into abdominal cavity when the hematoma goes below the arcuate line.

Where does the ilioinguinal nerve branch from. Where does it run? What does it pierce? What does it accompany and where? What does it provide sensation to?

L1. Runs on surface of transverse abdominal muscle and then internal oblique muscle. Pierces external oblique and accompanies the spermatic cord in the inguinal canal on surface of external spermatic fascia. Supplies sensation to anterior 1/3 of scrotum, pubis, and medial thigh. Supplies the transverse abdominal and internal oblique muscles.

Where does the pudendal nerve come from? What does it supply?

S2-S4. posterior scrotum.

Where does the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve come from? What does it supply?

S2,S3. Inferior scrotum

What are the borders of the inguinal (hasselbach's triangle)? What makes up its floor?

Laterally-deep inferior epigastric artery. Medially-lateral edge of rectus abdominus muscle. Inferiorly-inguinal ligament. Floor is transversalis fascia

What is contained in the spermatic cord? Where does it pass through?

Ductus deferens, testicular arteries and veins, lymphatic vessels, nerves. Passes through abdominal wall, extrudes transversalis fascia into a tube which forms the deep inguinal ring. Passes SUPERIOR to inguinal ligament

What is the cremasteric reflex? What innervates the cremaster muscle?

Light stroke of medial/superior thigh causes ipsilateral contraction of cremaster muscle. Genitofemoral nerve

What all is between the inguinal ligament and the pelvic bone?

Iliopectineal arc divides the space into lateral lacuna (iliopsoas muscles and femoral nerve) and medial space (aka vascular lacuna because femoral artery and vein pass through it). NAVEL from lateral to medial

Where does the umbilical fold extend from? What does it cover?

Apex of urinary bladder to umbilicus. Covers median umbilical ligament that joins the apex of fetal bladder to umbilicus

Where are the medial umbilical folds? What do they cover?

Lateral to median umbilical fold. Cover the medial umbilical ligaments (remnants of fetal arteries)

Where are the lateral umbilical folds? What do they cover?

Lateral to medial umbilical folds. Cover inferior epigastric vessels

Where are the supravesical fossa? What happens to them when bladder is emptied and filled? What possible clinical problem can occur here?

Between median umbilical fold and medial umbilical folds. Their level rises and falls when bladder fills and empties. External supravesical hernia

Where are the medial inguinal fossa? What clinical problem can occur here?

Between medial and lateral umbilical folds. Direct inguinal hernia

Where are lateral inguinal fossa? What do they include? What clinical problem can occur here?

Lateral to lateral umbilical folds. Deep inguinal rings. Indirect inguinal hernias

Where do inguinal hernias occur? What type of fascia is defected to cause them? What are the hernial sacs made of? 3 types of inguinal hernias? What are the 2 risks of inguinal hernias?

Pass superior to inguinal ligament. Defect in transversalis fascia. Sacs made of peritoneum. Strangulation-blood flow to bowel is cut off. Incarceration-bowel contents in hernial sac become stuck

Where do direct inguinal hernias pass? Do they enter the internal inguinal ring? Do they exit the superficial inguinal ring to go to scrotum?

Medial to inferior epigastric artery through medial inguinal fossa. Yes. No.

Where do indirect hernias pass?

Pass lateral to deep inferior epigastric artery. Through superficial inguinal ring and into scrotum.

Can females have indirect hernias? Where do they go?

Yes. Major vaginal lip

Where do femoral hernias pass through?

Femoral canal