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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the patterns of alopecia?

focal to multifocal

symmetrical diffuse

infectious parasites cause what pattern of alopecia? ie?

focal to multifocal

- staphylococcal pyoderma

- demodex

- dermatophytosis

- leishmania

What pattern of alopecia do immune mediated causes usually cause? ie?

focal to multifocal

- dermatomyositis

- vasculitis

- alopecia areata

What general alopecia pattern do endrocrine/metabolic conditions cause?


- hyperadr

- hypoth

- paraneoplastic

Give a neoplasia that results in alopecia?

epitheliotrophic cutaneous T cell lymphoma

Are demodex mites commensal or contagious?

commensal, associated with sebaceous glands and skin surface

d. gatoi can be contagious in cats

What types of demodicosis can occur? which is more severe?

localised (<5 lesions)

generalised (>5 lesions, more severe)

adult onset (secondary to other disease)

When does localised demodicosis occur in dogs?

during adolescence 4-10 months

How does localised juvenile onset demodicosis present? how is it treated?

multifocal alopecia, scaling, comedones, follicular casts

isnt pruritis unless 2* bacterial or malassezia infection

localised form usually resolves with maturity

How does generalised demodicosis presnet?

more severe, more lesions than localised

generalised alopecia, scaling, hyperpig, comedones and follicular casts

Secondary infection of generalised demodicosis -presents with?

papules, pustules, furunculosis and draining sinus tracts

peripheral lymphadenopathy with pyrexia and depression

treatment for demidicosis?

- amitraz dip once weekly

- wash with keratolytic and degreasing shampoo first to remove debris

- clip longhaired animals

- manage infections

treatment for mild cases of demodex?

lime sulphur dip

advocate once weekly (imidacloprid/moxidectin

What are the adverse effects of amitraz?

vomiting, sedation, bradycardia, pruritus,exfoliative erythroderma and hyperglycaemia

What are dermatophytes?

fungi that metabolise keratonised tissue


- microsporum canis

- microsporum gypseum

highly contagious and zoonotic!!

What breeds are predisoped to dermatophytosis? why?


yorkshire terriers

long hair makes it hard to groom out spores

cs of dermatophytosis?

multifocal alopecia and scaling

- Comedones

-Follicular casts

-Rarely pruritic


- paronychia

treatment of dermatophytosis?

itraconazole in cats

ketoconazole in dogs

treat until 2 negative cultures at least 7 days apart

clip long hair (can worsen cs)

environemental decontam!!

how long should demodex infection be treated?

until 2-3 negative skin scrapes at 2 week intervals then treated for a further month

Where is leishmania a problem?

endemic in mediteranean and americas

CS of leishmania vary a lot, give some examples

cutanous - focal alopecia of face, nose, pinnae and feet

systemic - hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, anaemia, muscle atrophy

How is Leishmania diagnosed?



identify organism in biopsies from infected skin, LN and bone marrow

Treatment of Leishmania?

complete cure is hard!

meglumine antimoniate, allopurinol and miltefosine

What would you recommend to owners if they are travelling somewhere that is endemic with Leishmania?

vaccine reduces risk

anti-sandfly treatment ie, deltamethrin shampoo and collar

Immune mediated cases of alopecia are rare, what would the cs ofdermatomyositis and vasculitis be?

- alopecia

- erythema

- crusting

- scaling of extremities

dermatomyositis also

- muscle atrophy

- weakness

- megaoesophagus etc

How does hyperadrenocorticism affect the skin?

bilateral symmetrical truncal hair loss


atrophic and inelastic skin

prominent blood vessels

what is a comedome?

Dilated hair follicle plugged withepidermal and sebaceous debris

How does hypothyroidism affect the skin?

varies with any combo of

- truncal alopecia

- thickened hyperpigmented and cool skin

What can cause sex hormone alopecias?

hyperoestrogenism-->ovarian neoplasia, sertoli cell tumours

hyperandrogenism --> neoplasia

What is telogen effluvium?

Stress causes telogenisation of the coat–-> Exogen or grooming results in alopecia

What is anagen defluxion? what breeds?

anagen interrupted --> weakened hair shaft easily fractured --> apparent hair loss

seen in anagen breeds ie. poodles

What are the cutaneous signs of feline paraneoplastic alopecia?

cutaneous signs are v specific and appear before systemic

ventral truncal alopecia

smooth shining thin translucent skin

surgery to excise tumour but poor prognosis

What breeds are often affected by pattern baldness? what happens?

miniaturisation of hair follicles --> focal alopecia

yorkshire terriets, daschunds and greyhounds

What are follicular dysplasias?

inherited diseases causing abnormal growth and development of hair follicles

puppy coat normal --> becomes dull, brittle and is lost over trunk, scaling and secondary infections --> abnormal regrowth

What types of follicular dysplasia are there?

black hair follicle dysplasia

colour dilute alopecia

What is the treatment for follicular dysplasia?

- avoid further damage to coat

- gentle antiscaling and moisturising shampoo

- control 2* infections

- high quality diet

- sun protection


Sebacceous adenitis?

poodles, vizlas, akitas etc

inflam and destruction of sebaceous glands

- dry skin

- hair loss

- 2* infections

Treatment for sebacceous adenitis?

- antiscaling shampoo

- vit A or retinoids

- high quality diet

- ciclosporin

- AB/AB shampoo to counter infections

What is alopecia X?

Alopecia of plush coated breeds

• Initially lose primary hairs

• Later complete alopeciaand hyperpigmentation

• Spares extremities