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300 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Frederick Law Olmsted Senior

Mid 1800s – Central Park

Edward Bassett

1916 New
York City Zoning Code

Robert Moses

1920s New York Parks
and Parkways

Jane Jacobs

Death and Life of
Great American Cities, 1961

Rachel Carson

Silent Spring,

Ian McHarg

Design with
Nature, 1969

First National Park

Yellowstone 1872

First National Wildlife

Florida 1903

First historic preservation

New Orleans

First off-street parking

Columbus, OH

First limited access

Bronx River
Parkway, 1926

New York City zoning


National Interstate
and Defense Highways Act


Intermodal Surface
Transportation Efficiency


Transportation Equity
Act for the 21st Century


First Urban Growth

Lexington, Kentucky 1958

Oregon Land Use Act




Clean Air Act


Clean Water Act


Coastal Zone Management Act


Endangered Species


Superfund Act


First National
Conference on City


American City
Planning Institute

1917, First President Frederick Law
Olmsted Junior

American Society of
Planning Officials

1934 Alfred Bettman

APA/AICP Created

1979. Merger of ASPO and ACPI

Rational Planning Model

Myerson and Banfield

Incremental Planning

Charles Lindblom

Advocacy Planning

Paul Davidoff

Ladder of Citizen Participation

Sherry Arnstein 1969

Daniel Burnham

1893. City Beautiful

Ebenezer Howard

1898. Garden Cities


1920. Radiant City

Ernest Burgess

1925. Concentric Ring

Frank Lloyd Wright

1932. Broad Acre City

Homer Hoyt

1939. Sector Theory

Harris and Ullman

Multiple Nuclei Theory

Harvey Molotch

Growth Machine Theory

Andres Duany

1982, New Urbanism, Seaside Florida

Joel Garreau

1991. Edge City

Robert Lang

2002. Edgeless City

Berman versus Parker

1954. Eminent Domain

Nollan versus California
Coastal Commission

1987. Takings

City of Ladue versus Gilleo

1994. Freedom of Speech

Golden versus Planning Board of the Town of

1972. Growth Management

Mount Laurel

1975. Housing

Kelo versus City of New London

2005. Eminent Domain

Lingle versus Chevron USA

2005. Takings

City of Rancho Palos Verdes versus Abrams

2005. Telecommunications Act

San Remo Hotel versus
City and County of San

State courts can
adjudicate challenges to land-use decisions

Planning at the National level

Federal Housing programs.
Federal Transportation
Federal Environmental
Protection programs

Planning for Multi-State or Bi-State

Watershed planning.
Tennessee Valley Authority.
Hoover Dam.
Commuting patterns.

Planning at the State Level

Floodplain development
Environmental protection
Dillon Rule or Home Rule.

Planning for Sub-state Regions

Adirondack Park.
Outer Banks

Planning at the County Level

Hazard Mitigation Planning.
Growth Management

Planning for Urban Areas

Urban Heat Island.
Infill development.
Traffic management

Planning for Suburban Areas

Sprawl. Aging infrastructure. Decay. Blight

Planning for Small Towns

Water supply and
increasing connections to
the water system.
Decline of the farm
economy – economic
Protecting the character of
the town.

Corridor Planning

Turning lanes.

Neighborhood Planning

Clarence Perry –
Neighborhood unit concept.

Access to grocery stores,

Waterfront Planning

Variety of land uses and
economic interests.
Residential, Retail,
Tourism, Shipping

Historic District Planning

Limit heavy traffic.

Downtown Planning

Business Improvement
District (BID).
Street cleaning.
Street trees.

Telecommunications Act


“New Law” regulates tenement housing

1901. New York City

First official and permanent local planning board

Hartford. 1907

First National Conference on City Planning

Washington DC. 1909

First state enabling legislation permitting cities to plan

Wisconsin. 1909

Burnham creates first regional plan

Chicago Plan. 1909

First land use zoning ordinance

Los Angeles. 1909

First course in city planning

Harvard. 1909

Philadelphia plan

1682. Grid system & neighborhood parks. William Penn. Thomas Holme

Annapolis plan

1695. Radiocentric Francis Nicholson

Washington Grand, whole city plan

1790. Pierre L’Enfant

Paris Model for “City Beautiful”

1852-1870. Napoleon III; Haussmann

Central Park

1856. Park First major purchase of parkland. Frederick Law Olmsted Senior

Riverside, Illinois

1869. Model curved street “suburb.” Frederick Law Olmsted Senior and Calvert Vaux

Pullman, Illinois

1880. Model industrial town. George Pullman

Agrarian Philosophy 1800’S

1800s. Thomas Jefferson and Hector Saint John deCrevecoeur

Laissez Faire Philosophy

1800s. Adam Smith

Public Health Movement

Late 1800s to 1920.

First modern land-­-use zoning in US

San Francisco. 1867. Forbade slaughterhouses in geographic districts

First major tenement house controls

New York City. 1867 and 1879.

60% of city flees from yellow fever; of those who remain, 80% get sick; 25% die

Memphis. 1879.

Parks Movement

Late 1800s through early 1900s

Central Park

Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux

Minneapolis park system

1883. Horace W. S. Cleveland

Boston – extensive regional park system

1891. Charles Eliot and Sylvester Baxter

City Beautiful Movement Major Actors

Burnham. Olmsted Senior., McKim. Saint Gaudens. Gottlieb.

The “White City”

1893. Columbian Exposition. Burnham, Olmsted Senior

McMillan Plan for Washington DC

1902. Update of L’Enfant’s Plan. Burnham, Olmsted Junior

First major application of City Beautiful in United States.

1906 San Francisco Plan. Burnham, Bennett.

First metro regional plan

1909. Chicago Plan. Burnam.

Garden City Movement Key Actors

Ebenezer Howard and John Ruskin

“Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform”

Ebenezer Howard. 1898.

Letchworth and Welwyn

Unwin. DeSessions. 1903 and 1920 Letchworth. by Unwin. 1903 and 1920. Welwyn. by DeSessions. 1919 and 1934. Welwyn introduces superblock

Radiant City

1920. LeCorbusier

“If the ends don’t justify the means, then what the hell does?”

Robert Moses

"Make no little plans for they have no magic to stir men's blood... Make big plans, aim high in hope and work"

Daniel Burnham

"A budget may be characterized as a series of goals with price tags attached”

Aaron Wildavsky

Concentric Ring Theory

1925. Ernest Burgess.

City Efficient Movement

Characterized by standardization. 1910s. 1920s.

Planning mandatory for local governments. Planning boards required

Massachusetts. 1913

First comprehensive zoning ordinance

New York. 1916.

American City Planning Institute established

1917. Kansas City.

Standard State Enabling Act

1922. Department of Commerce.

First regional planning board

Los Angeles County. 1922

First comprehensive plan based on welfare of city as a whole

Cincinnatti. 1925

Supreme Court upholds comprehensive zoning

1926. Euclid versus Ambler Realty Company

Standard City Planning Enabling Ac

1928. Department of Commerce.

Radburn, New Jersey

1929. Garden City inspired by Ebenezer Howard. Innovative neighborhood design

First school of city planning

Harvard. 1929.

“Regional Plan of New York and Its Environs”


Period for City Humane Movement


Broad Acre City

Frank Lloyd Wright presented the idea in his book The Disappearing City in 1932. Opposite of transit-­-oriented development. – All important transport is done by automobile and the pedestrian can exist safely only within the confines of the one acre plots where most of the population dwells.

Sector Theory

1939. Homer Hoyt. Development sectors and wedges along transport arteries.

City Functional Movement


Multiple Nuclei Theory

1945. Harris and Ullman.

“Image of the City”

Kevin Lynch. 1960. Basic elements of "imageability" including paths, edges, nodes, districts, landmarks.

The urban growth simulation model first emerges

Penn-­-Jersey Transportation Study. 1962.

Pittsburg Community Redevelopment Model


Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk

New Urbanism -­- Seaside, Florida. 1982.

Joel Garreau

Edge Cities. 1991

Allan Jacobs

Making City Planning Work. 1978.

Robert Lang.

Edgeless Cities. 2002.

Rational Planning Model

Myerson and Banfield.

Incremental Planning

Charles Lindblom

Advocacy Planning

Paul Davidoff

Ladder of Participation

Sherry Arnstein. 1969

Father of Regional Planning

Patrick Geddes

Father of Zoning

Edward Bassett

Father of City Planning

Daniel Burnham

Father of Modern Ecology

Ian McHarg

Father of Modern Housing Code

Lawrence Veiller

Father of Advocacy Planning

Paul Davidoff

Lawrence Veiller

New York City Housing Code.1901

Robert Moses

New York City Planner 1920s. Bronx Parkway.

Clarence Perry

Neighborhood Unit.

William Alonso

Bid Rent Theory (1960)

Edward Bassett

Heights of Buildings Commission. New York City be zoned and districted.
Father of Zoning.

Catherine Bauer

Modern Housing. 1934. Focused on low rent housing needs in America. It advocated for the role of government in assuring housing for all.

Benjamin Marsh

An Introduction to City Planning. 1909. Urged governmental action to address public health crises.

Walter D. Moody

Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago. 1912

Flavel Shurtleff

Carrying Out the City Plan. 1914. Olmstead co-authored. First study of state planning law.

Patrick Geddes

Cities in Evolution. 1915. All planning should preserve the unique historic character of the city and involve citizens in the planning of its development,

Nelson P. Lewis

The Planning of the Modern City. 1916. Viewed the problems of city planning as engineering problems.

Charles Mulford Robinson

City Planning. 1916.

With Special Reference to the Planning of Streets and Lots

Ernest Burgess and Louis Wirth

The City. 1925. Concentric Ring Theory

John Nolen

New Towns for Old. 1927. Planned Venice, California and Mariemont, Ohio with funding from Mary Emery in 1923.

Le Corbusier

Toward a New Architecture. 1927. Radiant City.

Clarence Perry

Neighborhood Unit. 1929.

Frank Lloyd Wright

The Disappearing City. 1932. Broad Acre City.

Homer Hoyt

The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities. 1939. Sector Theory.

Ladislas Segoe

Local Planning Administration. 1941. The Green Book. This was a manual for administrative practice of planning.

Aldo Leopold

Sand County Almanac. 1949. Co-founder of The Wilderness Society. Wildlife management and intrinsic value of nature.

Wright and Stein

Designed Radburn, New Jersey

Meyerson and Banfield

Politics, Planning, and the Public Interest. 1955. Rational Planning. Emphasized idea that "making the plan has to be inherently a process that organizes public and political support."

Harvey S. Perloff

Education for Planning. 1957. This book became the foundation for planning education.

F. Stuart Chapin

Urban Land Use Planning. 1957. Accepted as one of the standard texts on planning practice

Kevin Lynch

The Image of the City. 1960.

Lewis Mumford

The City in History. Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects. 1961. History of cities.

Jane Jacobs

The Death and Life of Great American Cities. 1961.

Rachel Carson

Silent Spring. 1962.

T.J. Kent

The Urban General Plan. 1964. History of the use, characteristics, and purpose of the urban comprehensive plan, and how it was currently being applied.

Ian McHarg

Design with Nature. 1969.

Christopher Alexander

A Pattern Language. Towns, Buildings, Construction. 1977. Detailed accounting of the patterns of urban architecture

Allan Jacobs

Making City Planning Work. 1978. Planning Director for San Francisco. Offering stories of what city planning was really like in San Francisco. Published Great Streets in 1993.

Frank So

The Practice of Local Government Planning. 1979. The Green Book. ICMA

William H. Whyte

The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. 1980.

Dolores Hayden

Redesigning the American Dream. 1984. The development of the American urban landscape seen through a domestic lens.

Peter Hall

Cities of Tomorrow. 1988.

Norman Krumholz

Making Equity Planning Work. 1990. Planning Director City of Cleveland.

Joel Garreau

Edge City. 1991

Randall Arendt

Rural By Design. Maintaining Small Town Character. 1994

Peter Calthorpe

The Regional City. Planning for the End of Sprawl. 2000. New Urbanism. Helped popularize TOD and New Urbanism

Robert Lang

Edgeless City. 2002. Coined term "boomburgs" for new form of mostly metropolitan mostly Sunbelt city growth.

Richard Florida

The Rise of the Creative Class. 2002.

Donald C. Shoup

The High Cost of Free Parking. 2005

Saul Alinsky

Community organizer, writer, activist. Rules for Radicals. 1971. Organized 'Back of the Yards' in Chicago and other slums in the 1930s. Moved to work in black ghettos in 1950s. Planned on organizing white middle class, known at the time as the silent majority

Lawrence Haworth

The Good City 1963. Philosophical approach to city planning needed before sociological or architectural. A good city provides opportunity and community, but modern cities favor opportunity overwhelmingly. Institutional structures are the not very sexy answer to the problem.

Alan Altshuler

The Goals of Comprehensive Planning - a 1965 blistering critique of comprehensive planning. Not feasible, not politically viable, no professional legitimacy. Challenged planners to build their theoretical arsenal. Sparked alternative methodologies: systems theory, middle-range bridge, mixed scanning, and advocacy planning. Judith Innes answers with consensus building.

Harland Bartholomew

1914 -first full-time city planner in US (Newark, New Jersey)

Herbert Simon

He coined the terms bounded rationality and satisficing.

John Friedman

Transactive Planning and Radical Planning. Planning in the Public Domain(1987) put forward the radical planning model of decolonization, democratization, self-empowerment, reaching out.

Peter Drucker

Founder of modern management field. Management by objectives - a process of agreeing on objectives across all parts of an organization to ensure buy-in. Coined the term knowledge worker.

Louis Wirth

Urbanism as a Way of Life (1938) a classic essay. Felt that urbanism harmed culture and eroded and delayed families, but that also offered many benefits. Co-author of The Citywith Burgess & Park.

William Levitt

Father of Suburbia. Applied assembly line techniques to home construction after WWII. Faster to build + affordable = massive more to home ownership on urban fringes. 17,000 homes in Levittown, PA. Levittown, NY his first big project.

George P. Marsh

1880s. One of the first geographers to see humans as shaping the environment. May be America's first environmentalist.

Walter Christaller

Central Place Theory in 1933. Saw cities as systems of human settlements with size, location, and services determined by position in a hierarchy of places.

William Alonso

Bid-rent function theory - says that a land use's distance from the CBD is a factor of the intensity of use, population, and employment.

Edmund Bacon

Philadelphia Planning Director. Design of Cities is his 1967 seminal text, relates international work of city designers throughout the ages to the contemporary city.

Benjamin Marsh

Executive Secretary to the New York City Committee on Congestion of Population, which formed in 1907. An Introduction to City Planning. 1909. First book in US dedicated city planning. Organized first national meeting on planning, the National Conference on City Planning & Congestion in DC in 1909.

Jane Addams

In 1889, cofounded Hull House in Chicago. Hull House offered night classes and a host of other community services and amenities, fostered cross-class interaction.

Ladislaus Segoe

Local Planning Administration in 1941 makes the case for integration of planning profession into local government. Worked on 1925Cincinnati Plan with Alfred Bettman.

James Rouse

Mall developer in 1950s. Coined term "mall" to describe. Introduced malls to create suburban town centers. In 1960s, turned to planned communities. Developer of Columbia, Maryland, which opened in 1967.

Edward Bennett

Minneapolis plan. Worked with Burnham on San Francisco plan.

Erie Canal

completed in 1825

Formed first transcontinental railroad

1869. Union Pacific and Central Pacific joint at Promontory Point, Utah

First American City with a subway

Boston in 1897

Jean Gottmann

termed the word Megalopolis (1962)

APA Formed

ACIP and ASPO joined in 1978

Rexford Tugwell

Served as the head of the Resettlement Administration. He worked on the greenbelt cities program.

Zip Code stands for what?

Zone Improvement Plan Code

First historic preservation commission was formed where?

Vieux Carre, New

First historic preservation ordinance

Charleston, South Carolina

First Department Store

Salt Lake City

How many square feet in an acre?


How many feet in a mile?


How many acres in one hectare?


How many acres in one square mile?


First urban growth boundary

Lexington, Kentucky in 1958

First state to institute statewide zoning

Hawaii in 1961

First Public water system


First Planning Commission

Hartford, Connecticut (1907)

First Board of Survey


First Regional Planning Commission

Los Angeles

First Zoning Ordinance

New York City. 1916

First Height Limitation and Restriction


First Large urban park

New York City

First Playgrounds


First Metropolitan Utility Commission


First Public Works


Suburban Cemetery

Hygia, Kentucky

Tenement Housing Law

New York City and Brooklyn 1807

First State law granting creation of city planning commission

Wisconsin. 1909

First Planned Suburban Community

Riverside, Illinois

Grand Coulee Dam

Largest concrete structure in the US was built in 1941



Clean Air Act


Clean Water Act


Coastal Zone Management Act


Endangered Species Act


Resource Conservation and Recovery Act


CAFE Standards



1980. Superfund.


Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act 1986

Telecommunications Act



Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act. 2000

What concept did Penn Central Transportation Company versus The City of New York (US
Supreme Court) first introduce?


What case did Alfred Bettman argue?

Village of Euclid v Ambler Realty Co.

Metromedia versus City of San Diego

Was found to violate the first amendment’s freedom of speech

First National Park

Yellowstone. 1872

US versus Gettysburg Electric Railway

Historic preservation.

Section 701 funds

Housing Act of 1954. Funds to be used for comprehensive planning for communities less than 25,000

Housing Act of 1959

Allowed for funds to be used for comprehensive planning for metro, state and regional levels

A-95 Review

Federal legislation in 1966 required
federal development grant money to be reviewed by an area wide organization such as councils of government.

Which Act created the HOME program?

Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (1990)

Gantt chart

Allocation of time among various tasks


Illustrate how different tasks are related


Illustrates how one task must be completed before beginning another

Decision Matrix

Utilizes a table with alternatives in the rows and various impact factors in columns


Range - how far numbers are spread out

Standard deviation

Square root of variance - dispersion around the mean.

Normal distribution

68% capture one standard deviation.

97% capture two standard deviations.

99% capture three standard deviations.

Step-down method

Using the population statistics of a larger geographic area to calculate that of a smaller area.

Economic Base or Economic Benefit Analysis.

Location quotient calculation. Using the ratio of an industry’s share of local employment divided by its share of the nation (or other higher level of government) to determine if it is exporting or importing. Basic goods are for export and non-basic are for import. It is assumed that the basic goods drive the local economy.

Welch versus Swasey**

1909. Height regulations in particular, that uphold public safety are a valid exercise of the police power. Boston.

Eubank versus City of Richmond*

1912. Equal Protection case.

Hadacheck versus Sebastian**

1915. Early nuisance case and example of regulation of location of land uses. LA bans brickyards.

Thomas Cusack versus City of Chicago*

1917. Sign regulations upheld.

Town of Windsor versus Whitney

1920. Subdivision regulations upheld.

Pennsylvania Coal versus Mahon

1922. SCOTUS finds for the first time that a regulation can create a "regulatory taking."

Nectow versus City of Cambridge**

1928. An arbitrarily placed zoning line (that was actually drawn in error) is invalidated. With Euclid, establishes concepts of reasonable use and regulations that have to be rationally tied to a valid public purpose - the lower level scrutiny of the rational basis test.

Berman versus Parker***

1954. Eminent domain.

Golden versus Town of Ramapo***

1972. The court upheld a growth management system that awarded points to development proposals based on the availability of public utilities. Case adds timing and sequencing to two existing dimensions of zoning: type and location of land uses.

Calvert Cliffs Coordinating Committee versus Atomic Energy Commission

1971. SCOTUS overturns an approval for a nuclear power plant due to failure to follow requirements of NEPA. First case to show the teeth in NEPA

Sierra Club versus Morton**

1972. SCOTUS issues ruling on standing in environmental cases. Sierra Club lost the case, but won the war, as environmental groups only need to find one member with a personal interest in the threatened area to have standing to sue.

Fasano versus County Commissioners of Washington County***

1973. Oregon Supreme Court. Holds that zoning must be consistent with comprehensive plans. Also shifts burden of proof to the party seeking a change in zoning, since this is an exercise of judicial authority instead of legislative.

Village of Belle Terre versus Boraas***

1974. SCOTUS holds that defining family as blood relatives or no more than two unrelated people is constitutional. No deprivation of a fundamental right.

Southern Burlington County NAACP v. Township of Mount Laurel

1975. Court holds that clear economic discrimination exists in Mount Laurel's Zoning Ordinance. Town ordered to provide for low-income housing, as are all New Jersey communities that are growing in population. Violation of equal protection clause.

Construction Industry Association of Sonoma County versus City of Petaluma***

1975. S District Appeals Ct. Leading CA case upholdingU growth management regs. Petaluma fixed rate of growth at 500 units per year for 5 years.

City of Eastlake versus Forest City Enterprises**

1976. Referendum case. SCOTUS upholds the Ohio Constitution, which gives the people referendum power over any question municipalities can control by legislation. The people reserved the power unto themselves, so it is not an unlawful delegation of legislative power.

Detroit versus American Mini Theatres**

1976. SCOTUS upholds Detroit ordinance that requires dispersion of adult uses. Not a violation of 1st Amendment, nor is it a violation based on licensing requirements.

Associated Homebuilders of Greater East Bay versus Livermore**

1976. Livermore passes a building permit moratorium through referendum. Court upholds it. Case looks favorably on limits on development based on capital improvements, especially when linked to a planning process.

Village of Arlington Heights versus Metropolitan Development Corp.***

1977. SCOTUS holds that while Arlington's Zoning Ordinance may be unintentionally discriminatory, intent to discriminate based on race, immigration status, or national origin IS unconstitutional.

Moore versus City of East Cleveland***

1977. SCOTUS holds that ordinance limiting the number of blood relatives that can live together violates due process.

Penn Central Transport versus City of New York***

1978. SCOTUS holds that denial of permit to build a skyscraper over Grand Central Station is not a taking. Law permits present use and a reasonable return on investments made. Especially since air rights were transferrable. Establishes legality of TDRs. Upholds NYC's Landmarks Preservation Law.

Metromedia versus City of San Diego***

1981. SCOTUS holds than an ordinance that bans all off-premise signs violates 1st Amendment because it effectively bans non-commercial speech on billboards/off-premise signs.

Loretto versus Manhattan Teleprompter ***

1982. SCOTUS holds that any physical invasion of property, no matter how small, is a taking. Right to exclude others is one of the most fundamental property rights.

Southern Burlington County NAACP versus Township of Mount Laurel (Mount Laurel 2)***

1983. Requires fair-share housing.

Members of City Council versus Taxpayers for Vincent*

1984. SCOTUS upholds LA ordinance that bans signs attached to utility poles. Says that ordinance met all tests under Central Hudson (1980).

Hawaii Housing Authority versus Midkiff*

1984. SCOTUS upholds Hawaii's use of eminent domain to transfer land from massive landholders to leasees. Holds that eminent domain is coterminous with the police power.

City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center**

1985. SCOTUS holds that Zoning Ordinance requiring special permit for group homes is discriminatory because similar uses did not require permits.

Williamson County Regional Planning Commission v. Hamilton Bank*

1985. SCOTUS addresses ripeness of takings claim. Need to exhaust all local remedies first. Get a final decision from local approval body before taking to court.

City of Renton v. Playtime Theaters**

1986. SCOTUS upholds a Zoning Ordinance that limits adult uses to 5% of land area. Renton used a Seattle study showing negative effects of adult uses. Did not have to show that reasonable alternative locations existed. Zoning Ordinance also passed Central Hudson test. No 1st or 14th amendment violations.

Keystone Bituminous Coal v. De Benedictus**

1987. SCOTUS dramatically alters the regulatory taking theory in Pennsylvania Coal versus Mahon as it applies to coal subsidence. Court upholds a statute quite similar to the one it overturned in 1922. Difference in how each act defined property - Keystone uses much broader scope for defining property value.

1st English Evangelical Lutheran Church versus County of Los Angeles***

1987. Moratorium can be a a taking. The temporary loss of use was enough to qualify for damages.

Nollan versus California Coastal Commission***

1987. SCOTUS requires that any condition imposed (an exaction) must have a rational nexus to a legitimate state interest.

Lucas versus South Carolina Coastal Council***

1992. SCOTUS holds that a taking categorically occurs when all economically beneficial use of the land is denied - does not even need to consider whether the regulation advances a legitimate state interest.

Dolan versus City of Tigard***

1994. SCOTUS holds that even if there is a rational nexus between exaction and state interest, it may still be a taking if the regulation is not roughly proportional to the impact of the development. In this case, requiring dedication of flood plain goes far beyond impact of the development.

Village of Willowbrook versus Olech*

2000. An individual can be a "class of one" when claiming violation of the equal protection clause. Violation occurs when government treats one differently from others similarly situated AND there is no rational basis for the difference in treatment, even if there is no ill will or vindictivenes shown on the part of the government.

Palazzolo versus Rhode Island*

2001. SCOTUS holds that a takings analysis is not irrelevant simply because new owner acquired property after regulations became effective. Palazzolo claimed inverse condemnation, after being denied permit to fill 18 acres of coastal wetlands.

City of Los Angeles v. Alameda Books

2002. Court upholds LA ban on more than one adult use in the same building because of evidence that shows negative secondary effects of concentrated adult uses.

Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council versus Tahoe Regional Planning Association***

2002. SCOTUS holds that the "mere enactment" of moratoriums is not a takings. Moratoria imposed during the preparation of a comp plan are not categorical takings. Courts must weigh particular circumstances of each case.

Kelo versus New London***

2005. SCOTUS upholds a Connecticut takings case where land was taken for private redevelopment as per Berman. Bad political reaction has led to many states limiting eminent domain use to strictly public end uses.

Lingle versus Chevron***

2005. SCOTUS holds that the "substantially advances" test created by Agins is actually a test for due process, not a takings test.

City of Rancho Palos Verdes versus Abrams*

2005. SCOTUS determines that monetary damages are not a remedy under the Telecommunications Act of 1996.

San Remo Hotel versus City and County of San Francisco**

2005. SCOTUS holds that states can adjudicate challenges to land use decisions, and that plaintiffs are not entitled to cases in both federal and state court systems.

Rapanos versus United States**

2006. SCOTUS holds the Army Corps must show that wetlands have a significant nexus to navigable waters to be within their jurisdiction.