• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

3 criteria for determining psych orders


2-impairment in daily life

3-risk of harm


impaired ability to perceive reality to the extent that normal functioning is difficult if not impossible

different types of delusions

paranoid, delusional jealously, grandiose, somatic

free association

technique in which patients are encouraged to say whatever thoughts occur to them

psychoanalytic theory

thoughts, feelings and behaviors are a result of conscious and unconscious forces continually interacting in the mind

3 psych structures of the mind

Id: immediate gratification, pleasure principle

Superego: seat of conscience, morale

Ego: mediate between id and superego

psychosexual stages

oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital


pattern of thoughts, feelings or behaviors that expresses an unresolved conflict between the ego and id or ego and superego

defense mechanisms

repression, denial, rationalization, projection, reaction formation and sublimination

challenges to freud's theory

-based on subjective interpretations of what patients say and do

-not generally testable using scientific methodologies

mental processes

internal operations that underlie cognitive and emotional functions and behaviors

mental contents

specific memories, knowledge, goals and other material that are stored and processed in the mind

humanist response

abraham maslow....didn't agree with Freud on:

-mental processes were driven by sex and aggression

-humans don't have free will because behavior is in response to unconscious

humanistic psychology

focuses on free will, innate goodness, creativity and the self

carl rogers (humanistic)

-symptoms of distress and mental illness arise when a potential route to personal growth is blocked

-client centered therapy


b.f. skinner

-focused on understanding directly observable behaviors rather than unobservable mental processes and mental contents

ivan pavlov (behaviorism)

studied salivation in dogs-discovered classical conditioning

maladaptive learning

inadequate learning

cognitive contribution

-studies mental processes and contents starting from the analogy of info processing by a computer

aaron beck and albert ellis (cognitive)

-focused on how peoples irrational thoughts about themselves and the world can contribute to psych disorders

social forces

-affect emergence and maintenance of mental illness

attachment style (social)

ainsworth and bell





-those with insecure attachments are more likely to have psych disorders

biological explanations

psych disorders have underlying biological causes

diathesis-stress model

disorder is triggered when person with predisposition for particular disorder has an environmental event that causes stress


3 different factors affect psych disorders


-emphasis on brain rather than body

-emphasis on feedback loops, no one factor can be understood in isolation

research treatments for neurological factors

-drug or placebo effect?

-dropouts can equal more than half

-attrition: reduction in number of research participants in study

research treatments for psych factors

-act of seeing therapist helps

-common factors shared by all psychotherapy

is therapy better than no treatment


therapy dose-response relationship

higher dose of therapy is associated with a better response

research treatments that target social

-gender and ethnicity of patient and therapist

-culturally sanctioned placebo effects

-ethical research on experimental treatments

neuropsychosocial approach

etiology: the factors that lead a person to develop a psych disorder


deficits in how a person thinks, feels and behaves

3 types of neurons




abnormal communications among neurons

-too many or too few dendrites or receptors

-too much or too little neurotransmitter

-events of neuron fires may go awry

-reuptake: moving leftover neurotransmitters back into sending neuron

behavioral genetics

degree to which the variability of characteristics in a population arises from genetics versus environmental factors

passive interaction

genes affect childs environment and child passively receives those influences

evocative interaction

persons inherited traits encourage other people to behave in particular ways and hence the persons social environment will be affected by their genes

active interaction

each of us actively seek out some environment and avoid others and our genes influence which environments feel most comfortable

mental processes




mental contents

-cognitive distortions-dysfunctional thoughts

-all or nothing thinking



-inappropriate affect

-flat affect

-labile affect: changes very rapidly

emotional regulation and psych disorders

-externalizing problems

-internalizing problems

neurological bases of emotion

-approach emotions: positive emotions, left frontal lobe

-withdrawal emotions: negative emotions, right frontal lobe


aspects that reflect persons typical emotional state and reactivity

social factors in psych disorders

-family matters

-family interaction style and relapse

-child maltreatment

-parental psych disorders

-community support

-social stressors



might indicate that certain types of treatment would be more effective than others

clinical assessment

provide info about specific ways in which and the degree to which an individual is impaired

why diagnose

-provide shorthand

-group things into unique constellations

-info about etiology

-indicate individual needs support

-find relief

diagnostic bias

systematic error in diagnosis


systems that consistently produce same results


categories must characterize what they are supposed to be classifying


likely course and outcome of a disorder


number of people who have a disorder in a given period of time

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

-categorical: someone either has a disorder or they don't


presence of more than one disorder at the same time in a given patient

criticisms of DSM


-categories not continuous dimensions

-diff symptoms can equal same disorder

-some criteria too restrictive

-disorders created to ensure payment

-social factors deemphasized

-comorbidity is common

-unscientific and lacks rigor

assessing neurological and biological factors

-looking for medical problems such as a brain tumor or abnormal hormone levels

Computerized axial tomography (CT)

-builds image of a persons brain, slice by slice

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

-makes sharp images of brain, which allows more precise diagnoses

positron emission tomography (PET)

-neuroimaging technique that measures blood flow in brain and requires introducing a very small amount of radioactive substance into bloodstream

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

neuroimaging technique that uses MRI to obtain images of brain functioning

unstructured interview

-clinician asks whatever questions he or she deems appropriate

-diff clinicians with same patient could arrive at diff conclusions

structured interview

-clinician uses a fixed set of questions

-more reliable diagnosis, less valid

semistructured interview

-specific questions and freedom to ask additional questions that are relevant

-mental status exam: assesses cognitive, emotional and behavior functioning broadly







-mental processes