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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the respiratory system do?
The respiratory system provides a passage for oxygen to enter the body and for carbon dioxide to
exit the body.
Label the anatomy of the upper airway?
Use the labeling diagram to mark the main structures of the upper airway.
What is the upper aiway divided into?
Nasal cavity

Oral cavity

What is the Pharynx made up of?


What is the Larynx made up of?
 Thyroid cartilage
 Cricoid cartilage
 Glottic opening
 Vocal cords
 Arytenoid cartilage
 Cricothyroid cartilage
Label the Internal Anatomy of the Upper Airway?
Use the labeling diagram to label the Internal Anatomy of the Upper Airway.
What are the parts of the lower airway?
 Lung parenchyma
Label the Internal Anatomy of the Lower Airway?
Use the labeling diagram to label the Internal Anatomy of the Lower Airway.
What is respiration?
 The exchange of gases between a living
organism and its environment.
What is ventilation?
 The mechanical process that moves air into
and out of the lungs.
How are gases in solution
Their partial pressures
What is partial pressure?
Pressure exerted by each component of a gas mixture.
What are the normal arterial pressures of CO2 and O2?
 Oxygen (PaO2)
100 torr (average = 80 –100)
Equivalent to mmHg
 Carbon dioxide (PaCO2)
40 torr (average = 35 – 45).
What is diffusion?
 Movement of a gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Where does transfer of gasses take place?
 Between the lungs and the blood
 Between the blood and peripheral tissues
What are Factors Affecting Oxygen Concentrations in the Blood?
 Decreased hemoglobin concentration
 Inadequate alveolar ventilation
 Decreased diffusion across the pulmonary membrane when diffusion distance increases or the pulmonary membrane changes
 Ventilation/perfusion mismatch occurs when a portion of the alveoli collapses
What are Factors Affecting Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in the Blood?
 Hyperventilation lowers CO2 levels
 Decreased ventilation increases CO2
levels by decreasing elimination

Increased CO2 production:
 Fever, muscle exertion, shivering, metabolic
processes resulting in the formation of metabolic
How is the Respiratory Rate controlled?
 Involuntary; however, can be
voluntarily controlled.
 Chemical and physical
mechanisms provide involuntary impulses to correct any breathing irregularities.
Where is the main respiratory centre?
 Main respiratory centre is the medulla.
 Neurons within medulla initiate impulses that produce respiration.
What are Chemoreceptors and what do they do?
 Located in carotid bodies, arch of the aorta, and medulla.
 Stimulated by decreased PaO 2, increased PaCO2, and decreased pH.
 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pH is primary control of respiratory centre
What is hypoxic drive?
 Hypoxemia is a profound stimulus of respiration in a normal individual.
 Hypoxic drive increases
respiratory stimulation in people with chronic respiratory disease.
What are the normal respiratory rates of the different age groups?
Adult 12-20
Children 18-30
Infants 40-60
What are the effects of the following on respiration rates?

Fever - Increases
Emotion - Increases
Pain - Increases
Stimulants - Increases
Hypoxia - Increases
Acidosis - Increases
Depressants - Decreases
Sleep - Decreases
What is the total lung capacity of an adult male?
6 Litres
What is tidal volume?
 Average volume of gas inhaled or exhaled in one respiratory cycle.
 Average adult male:
VT = 500 ml (5-7 cc/kg)
Compare he structure and function of the external and internal nose?
The external nose is composition of bone and cartilage, divided into two passages by a rigid partition known as the septum. It is responsible for inhalation.

The internal nose is a soft tissue cavity, which carries a rich blood supply, lined with ciliated mucous membranes that keep contaminants such as dust and other particles out of the respiratory tract.
Identify the regions of the pharynx and describe their roles in respiration?
Nasopharynx – inhalation through the nose, keeps dust and particles out of the respiratory tract.

Oropharynx – inhalation through the mouth.

Laryngopharynx – opens into the larynx anteriorly and the esophagus posteriorly.
Describe the structure of the larynx and explain its function in respiration and voice production?
The larynx is formed by many independent cartilaginous structures. Marks where the upper airway ends and the lower airway begins. It limits the amount of airflow that is inhaled and exhaled into the respiratory tract by opening and closing.

In voice production, manipulation of the larynx is used to generate a source sound during exhalation. This source sound is altered as it travels through the vocal tract, configured differently based on the position of the tongue, lips, mouth, or pharynx.
Explain the structure and function of the trachea?
The trachea is a tubular structure surrounded by a series of c-shaped cartilaginous rings. It carries the air into the lungs.
Describe the location and structure of the tubes that form the bronchial tree?
When entering the lungs, from the carina, each bronchus (Left and Right) divide into increasingly smaller bronchi, which subdivide into bronchioles, which branch into alveolar ducts then end in alveolar sacs.
Identify the coverings of the lungs and the division of the lungs into lobes?
The right lung has three lobes, and the left lung has only two lobes.

The lungs are covered with a thin, slippery outer lining called the visceral pleura.
Explain the structure of the alveolar-capillary (respiratory) membrane and its function in the diffusion of respiratory gases.
The alveolar sacs are surrounded by pulmonary capillaries, the alveoli stay inflated by a proteinaceous substance called surfactant, that make it possible for gases to diffuse through the respiratory membranes between the surfaces.
List the events involved in inspiration and expiration?
Inspiration is an active process that is initiated by contraction of the respiratory muscles (the diaphragm shrinks down, and flattens out), causing the ribs and sternum to move upward and outward. This decreases the pressure within the chest allowing air to flow from and any of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Expiration is a passive process, the respiratory muscles relax (the diaphragm expands), forcing the air back out.
Explain how compliance and airway resistance relate to breathing?
Airway compliance is the ability of the lungs to stretch during a change in volume relative to an applied change in pressure

Airway resistance is dictated by factors which limit the access of inspired air to the pulmonary alveoli. Resistance is the greatest in the bronchi.
Define coughing, sneezing, sighing, yawning, sobbing, crying, laughing, and hiccuping as modified respiratory movements?
Coughing is forceful exhalation, usually due to irritation or illness of the respiratory tract.

Sneezing is a sudden forceful exhalation, usually due to irritation of the nose.

Yawning is an involuntary inhalation do to shallow respirations.

Sobbing is a chain of quick bursts of inhalation due to change in our emotional state.

Crying is a chain of bursts of exhalation due to a change in our emotional state.

Hiccuping is a sudden inhalation, due to spasmodic contractions of the diaphragm.
Compare the volumes, and capacities of air exchanged during respiration?
The volume is a measure of the depth air that is inhaled during a single respiratory cycle. The capacities in an average adult male is approximately 500ml.
Explain how external and internal respiration occur?
External respiration is the exchange of gases between the lung and the blood cells in the pulmonary capillaries.

Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood cells and tissues.
Describe how the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is affected by oxygen and carbon dioxide?
Environments rich in carbon monoxide decrease the available amount of oxygen, because CO2 has a greater attraction to hemoglobin than oxygen.
Explain how the respiratory gases are transported by the blood?
Dissolved oxygen crosses the pulmonary capillary membrane and binds to the hemoglobin molecule of the red blood cell, the blood carries those red blood cells throughout the body.
Explain how the respiratory center functions in establishing the basic rhythm of respiration?
The body has chemoreceptors that monitor the levels of O2, CO2, and the PH of the CSF. They provide feedback to the respiratory centers to modify the rate and depth of breathing based on the body's needs at that time.

The primary respiratory drive regulates the bodies PaCO2 and keeps it within normal limits. The secondary respiratory drive is the hypoxic drive which is the body responding to a natural high level of CO2.
Describe how various neural and chemical factors may modify the rate of respiration?
Certain medication cause respirations to increase or decrease, depending on their physiological action.

Pain and strong emotions can also increase respirations.

Hypoxia is a powerful stimulant to breath, as it increases respirations to bring more oxygen into the body.

Acidosis also increases respirations to compensate from the bodies excessive carbon dioxide concentrations.

High and low metabolic rates also affect respiration to help increase of decrease levels of carbon dioxide.
Describe the effects of aging in the respiratory system. (reading 9.12)?
The size of the airway increases and the surface areas of the alveoli decreases, resulting in less oxygen exchange over the pulmonary membrane. The natural elasticity of the lungs also decreases, forcing them to use their intercostal muscles more. Also the chest becomes more rigid because of the calcification of the ribs to the sternum, decreasing chest expansion.