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207 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is an example of a flat bone?


What is the shafts of a long bone?


What is an example of a long bone?


Whichof the following are components of bone matrix?




Smallspaces in which bone cells lie are called?


Thebasic structural unit of compact bone is?


Thecells that produce the organic matrix in bone are?


Thebones in an adult that contain red marrow include all of the following:




Whatis the thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity?


Whatis an example of a flat bone?


Whatis the shaft of a long bone?


Whatis an example of a long bone?


Whatis the thin layer that cushions jolts and blows?

articular cartilage

Whatis an example of a sesamoid bone?


Whatis an attachment for muscle fibers?


Whatis an example of a short bone?

Whatis the end of a long bone

Whatis the tube-like, hollow space in the diaphysis on long bones?

medullary cavity

Whatis an example of an irregular bone?


Lowblood calcium evokes a response from?

parathyroid hormone

Theprimary ossification center is located at the?


Theprimary purpose of the epiphyseal plate is?

lengthening long bones

Theepiphyseal plate is composed mostly of?


Boneloss normally begins to exceed bone gain between the ages of?

35 and 40 years

Thefirst step to healing a bone fracture is?

fracture hematoma formation

Thefibrous covering of cartilage is


Theexternal ear, epiglottis, and the auditory tube are composed of?

elastic cartilage

VitaminD deficiency can result in?


Theouter covering of bone is called


Whatis dense bone tissue called?


Whatare fibers embedded in a firm gel?


Whatare criss-crossing bony branches of spongy bone?


Whatare ends of long bones?


Whatconnects lacunae?

What are cartilage cells?
What is the structural unit of compactbone?
haversian system

Whatare mature bone cells?


Whatis “ring of bone?”


Spongy bone ischaracterized by

openspace partially filled by an assemblage of needle-like structures
Types of bone

Long- cylindrical

short- boxlike

flat- broad, sheet like

irregular- various shapes

sesamoid- seedlike (irregular)

The mainshaft-like portion of a long bone is the


The dense, whitefibrous membrane that covers bone except at joint surfaces is the


The extracellular componentsof bone matrix are

hard and calcified

An age-relatedskeletal disease that is characterized by loss of bone mineral density andincreased bone fragility is


Compact bonecontains many cylinder-shaped structural units called


Small cells thatsynthesize and secrete a specialized organic matrix are


Bone marrow is aspecialized type of soft, diffuse connective tissue called

myeloid tissue

The following arefunctions of bone:




mineral storage.


Blood calciumlevels involve secretion of which two hormones?

parathyroid and calcitonin

Most bones of thebody are formed from cartilage models in a process called

endochondral ossification

Calcification ofthe organic bone matrix occurs when

complex calcium salts are deposited in the matrix

Until bone growthin length is complete, a layer of the cartilage, known as the _____, remainsbetween the epiphysis and diaphysis.

epiphyseal plate

Bones grow indiameter by the combined action of which two of the three bone cell types?

osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Cartilage isclassified as _____ tissue.

The most common type ofcartilage is

_____ fibersare present in all three types of cartilage, but they are most numerous infibrocartilage.


Fibrocartilagecan be found in the

symphysis pubis

Appositionalgrowth of cartilage occurs when chondrocytes begin to divide and secrete

additional matrix


which is the main shaft of a long bone, hollow cylindrical shape and thick compact bone, provides strong support without cumbersome weight


are both ends of a long bone, made of cancellous bone filled with marrow, bulbous shape and provide attachments for muscles and give stability to joints

Articular cartilage-

Layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the articular surface of epiphyses, cushions jolts and blows


Dense, white fibrous membrane that covers bone, attaches tendons firmly to bones, contains cells that form and destroy bone, contains blood vessels important in growth and repair, contains blood vessels that send branches into bone, essential for bone cell survival and bone formation.


Tube-like hollow space in the diaphysis, filled with yellow marrow in adults


thin fibrous membrane that lines the medullary cavity

Spaces inside the cancellous bone of short, flat,irregular, and sesamoid bones

are filled with

Red marrow


crystals of calcium and phosphate contribute to bone hardness, slender needlelike crystals are oriented to most effectively resist stress and mechanical deformation, Magnesium, sodium, sulfate and fluoride and also found in bone.

Organic Matrix-

composite ofcollagenous fibers and an amorphous (no clear shape), mixture ofproteins and polysaccharides called groundsubstance. Ground substance is secreted by connective tissuecells, adds to overall strength of bone and gives some degree of resilience to bone.

Compact Bone-

contains many cylinder-shaped structural units called osteons or Haversian Systems, osteons surround canals that run lengthwise through bone and are connected by transverse canals (Volkmann), living bone cells are located in these units, constitute the structural framework of compact bone, osteons permit delivery of nutrients and removal of waste products.


small spaces containing tissue fluid in which bone cells are located between hard layers of the lamella


ultra small canals radiating in all directions from the lacunae and connecting them to each other and to the central canal


bone forming cells found in all bone surfaces, small cells synthesize and secrete osteoid, an important part of the ground substance, collagen fibrils line up in osteoid and serve as a framework for the deposition of calcium and phosphate


Giant multinucleated cells containing many mitochondria and lysosomes, responsible for the active erosion of bone minerals. Hydrochloric acid dissolves hard bone minerals, releasing ions, Collagenase is an enzyme that breaks collagen proteins into amino acids, Ions and amino acids are reabsorbed by blood and recycled.


mature, non-dividing osteoblasts surrounded by matrix and lying within lacunae

Skeletal system-

serves as a store house for about 98% of body calcium reserves. Helps maintain constancy of blood calcium levels, calcium is mobilized and moves into and out of blood during bone remodeling, during bone formation, osteoblasts remove calcium from blood and lower circulating levels, during breakdown of bone, osteoclasts release calcium into blood and increase circulating levels.

Homeostasis ofcalcium ion concentration essential for the following:

Bone formation, remodeling and repair, blood clotting, transmission of nerve impulses, maintenance of skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction


primary regulator of calcium homeostasis, stimulates osteoclasts to initiate breakdown of bone matrix and increase blood calcium levels, increases renal absorption of calcium from urine, stimulates vitamin D synthesis


protein hormone produced in the thyroid gland, it’s produced in response to high blood calcium levels, stimulates bone deposition by osteoblasts, inhibits osteoclast activity, far less important in homeostasis of blood calcium levels that is parathyroid hormone

Other mechanisms:

Growth hormone increases bone growth, thus reducing blood calcium. Serotonin inhibits osteoblast activity, thus increases blood calcium


development of bone from small cartilage or membrane model to adult bone

Epiphysealplate is composed of four layers

“Resting cartilage cells-point of attachment joining the epiphysis to the shaft

Zone of proliferation-cartilage cells undergoing active mitosis, which causes the layer to thicken and the plate of increase in length

Zone of hypertrophy-older, enlarged cells undergoing degenerative changes associated with calcium deposition

Zone of calcification-dead or dying cartilage cells undergoing rapid calcification


grow in length and diameter by the combined action of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, osteoclasts enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity, osteoblasts from the periosteum build new bone around the outside of the bone, mechanical stress, as from physical activity, strengthens bone

Coccyx is part of what?

Axial skeleton

80bones are part of what?

Axial skeleton

126bones are part of what?

Appendicular skeleton

Vertebralcolumn is part of what?

Axial skeleton

Carpalsare part of what?

Appendicular skeleton

Scapulaare part of what?

Appendicular skeleton

Auditoryossicles (ear bones)

Axial skeleton

Shouldergirdle is part of what?

Appendicular skeleton

Skullis part of what?

Axial skeleton

Claviclesare part of what?

Appendicular skeleton
Thesquamous suture connects which two bones?

Temporaland sphenoid

Themastoid sinuses are found in which bone?


Theskull bone that articulates with the first cervical vertebrae is the?


Ameatus can be described as a?

Tube-likeopening or channel

Separationof the nasal and cranial cavities is achieved by the

Cribriformplate of the ethmoid bone

the following are bones of theorbit?




Isthe sphenoid a bone of the face?


Sphenoid-keystoneof the cranial floor; forms its midportion; resembles a bat with wingsoutstretched and legs extended downward posteriorly; lies behind and slightlyabove the nose and throat; forms part of the floor and sidewalls of the orbit

Afontanel is a specialized adaptation of the infant skull?

Thecheek is shaped by the zygomatic, or malar, bone?

Isthe external acoustic meatus is located within the temporal bone?


the following are marking on facial bones:




Whatdoes the palatine process do?

Formspart of the hard palate

Thefoundation or keystone in the architecture of the face is the?


Theshape of the nose is formed by the nasal bones and the?

Septal cartilage

Whichmarking appear on the mandible?




Laminais a posterior portion of the

Which of the following part of thevertebral column?

Cervical curvature



Thedens projects from the body of the?
second vertabra

Thevertebral column is curved why?

To increase the carrying strength of the column

Thefirst cervical vertebra is known as the?


Whatare the first seven pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum called?

True ribs
Theeleventh and twelfth ribs, which have no attachment to the sternum are calledwhat?
Floating rib

Whatis the middle part of the sternum called?


Whatis the most superior part of the sternum called?


The blunt, cartilaginous, lower tip of thesternum is called what?


Whatare the five pairs of ribs that do not attach directly to the sternum called?

False ribs
Whatis the tissue that attaches ribs directly or indirectly to the sternum called?
Costal cartilage
Anothername for “hunchback” is?


Whichof the following abnormal curvatures can interfere with breathing, posture, andother vital functions?




Mastoiditisinvolves which of the following?


Otitismedia is usually treated with?

Normalcurvature of the spine is convex posteriorly-through the thoracic region andconcave posteriorly through the cervical and lumbar regions

Theskull consists of two major divisions which are the cranium and the face?

Theskull consists of two major divisions which are the cranium and the face?

The middle ear bones are referred to as theauditory ossicles?

The cranium has 8bones which are

frontal (1), parietal (2), temporal (2), occipital

(1), sphenoid (1), ethmoid (1)


prominent, bulging bones behind the frontal bone; forms the top sides of the cranial cavity.


form the lower sides of the cranium and part of the cranial floor; contain the middle and inner ear structures
thin, flaring upper part of the bone


Forms the lower, posterior part of the skull, forms immovable joints with three other cranial bones and a movable joint with the first cervical vertebra
Sphenoid bone -

A bat—shaped bone located in the central portion of the cranialfloor. Anchors the frontal, parietal,occipital, and ethmoid bones and forms part of the lateral wall of the craniumand part of the floor of each orbit and contains the sphenoid sinuses

Ethmoid bone-

A complex, irregular bone that lies anterior to the sphenoid andposterior to the nasal bones. Forms theanterior cranial floor, medial orbit walls upper parts of the nasal septum, andsidewalls of tile nasal cavity. the cribriform plate is located in the ethmoid

Maxillaearticulate with
each other and with the nasal, zygomatic, inferior concha, and palatine bones. Forms parts of the orbital floors, roof of the mouth, and floor and sidewalls of the nose, contains maxillary sinuses

Mandible (lower jaw)

Largest, strongest bone of the face, forms the only movable joint of the skull with the temporal bone is the only facial bone


Both nasal bones form the upper part of the bridge of the nose, whereas cartilage forms the lower part. Articulates with the ethmoid, nasal septum, frontal bone, maxillae, and the other nasal bone
thin bone that lies just posterior and lateral to each nasal bone, forms the nasal cavity and medial wall of the orbit, contains a groove for the nasolacrimal duct, articulates with the maxilla, frontal and ethmoid bones

Palatine bone-

Two bones form the posterior part of the hard palate, vertical portion forms the lateral wall of the posterior part of each nasal cavity, articulates with the maxillae and the sphenoid bone

Inferior nasalconchae (turbinates)

Form the lower edge projecting into the nasal cavity and form the nasal meatus, articulates with ethmoid, lacrimal, maxillary, and palatine bone

Vomer bone-

forms the posterior portion of the nasal septum, articulates with the sphenoid, ethmoid, palatine, and maxillae


“Characterized by unique anatomical features not seen in adult skull Fontanels or “soft spots” (4) allow the skull to “mold” during the birth process and also allow for rapid growth of the brain


U-shaped bone located just above the larynx and below the mandible Suspended from the styloid processes of the temporal bone. Only bone in the body that articulates with no other bones

Segmentsof the vertebral column:

(Cervical vertebrae, 7 )(Thoracic vertebrae, 12) ( Lumbar vertebrae, 5)


Dagger shaped bone in the middle of the anterior chest wall made up of three parts. Manubrium-the upper handle part, body-middle blade part, xiphoid process-blunt cartilaginous lower tip which ossifies during adult life.
articulates with the clavicle and first rib


Twelve pairs of ribs with the vertebral column and sternum form the thorax, each rib articulates with the body and transverse process of its corresponding thoracic vertebra 3.

Ribattachment to the sternum:

Ribs 1 through 8 join a costal cartilage that attaches it to the sternum

Thehuman skeleton system consists of two divisions. They are

Axial and appendicullar

Whichof the following is a bone in the axial skeleton?


Whichof the following is a facial bone?

Zygomatic bone

The following are bone in the skull?




Whichbone serves as the keystone in the architecture of the cranium?


Thebone that articulates with the temporal bone in the only movable joint of theskull is the


Which two bones join to form the posteriorpart of the hard palate?


The very small bone that lies justposterior and lateral to each nasal bone is the


Which structures are unique to the fetalskull and provide additional space for molding the head shape as the babypasses through the birth canal?


The bone that claims the distinction ofbeing the only bone in the body that articulates with no other bones is the


Thevertebral bones that support the small of the back are the

lumbar vertabrae

Themedial part of the anterior chest wall is supported by a dagger-shaped bonecalled the


Anteriorly,each rib of the first seven pairs attaches to the


Whyare the last two pairs of false ribs designated as floating ribs?

Floating ribs donot attach even indirectly to the sternum.

Acondition that is caused by an abnormally increased roundness in the thoraciccurvature is

Which of the following is not in the appendicular skeleton?

Thehumerus articulates proximally with the


Which lower leg bone is smaller and is located laterally?


Which of the following bones form the framework of the hand?


Of the five metacarpal bones that form the framework of the hand, the_____ metacarpal forms the most freely movable joint with the carpal bones
What structures normally hold the foot bones firmly in their archedpositions?

ligaments and tendons
Which of the following are bones in the leg?




The largest sesamoid bone in thebody is the


Which two bones compose theshoulder girdle?

clavicle and scapula

. Anatomically speaking, which bones compose the wrist?


Which bone is the longest andheaviest bone in the body?


The joint between the pubic portions of each coxal bone is the
pubis symphysis
The two bones that form the framework for the forearm are the
radius and ulna

Which ofthese pelvic bones is the most anteriorly placed?


If you are working on anarcheological dig and find the remains of a human pelvis with a subpubic angleof 110 degrees, you can assume that this pelvis belongs to a


Which of the following are partof the shoulder girdle?



The coronoid fossa is a:

depression of the humerus

The arm socket is the:

glenoid cavity

The bone on the thumb side of the forearm is the:

Of the five metacarpal bones, whichforms the most freely movable joint with the carpal bones?


Which two bones compose the shoulder girdle?

clavicle and scapula

Which of the following is are the bones of the pelvic girdle?




The greater trochanter is a bonylandmark of the:

During childbirth the infant passes through an imaginary plane calledthe
Pelvic outlet

Which of the following are part of atarsal bone?




The strongest and lowermost portion of the coxal bone is the:

Shoulder girdle

Made up of the scapula and clavicle articulates with the acromion process of the scapula


The long bone of the upper part of the arm

Articulates proximally with the glenoid fossa of the scapula and distally with the radius and ulna


The long bone found on the little finger side of the forearm

Articulates proximally with the humerus and radius and distally with a fibrocartilaginous disk


The long bone found on the thumb side of the forearm Articulates proximally with the capitulum of the humerus and the radial notch of the ulna; articulates distally with the scaphoid and lunate carpal bones and with the head of the ulna

Carpal bones

Eight small bones that form the wrist

Proximal row is made up of the pisiform, triquetrum, lunate, and scaphoid

Distal row is made up of the hamate, capitate, trapezoid, and trapezium

Metacarpal bones

Form the framework of the hand

The thumb metacarpal forms the most freely movable joint with the carpal bones

Heads of the metacarpal bones (the knuckles) articulate with the phalanges

Eachcoxal bone is made up of three bones that fuse together

Ilium—largest and uppermost

Ischium- strongest and lowermost

Pubis—anterior most

Pelvic girdle is made up of the

sacrum and the two coxal bones bound tightly by strong ligaments


longest and heaviest bone in the body


largest sesamoid bone in the body


the larger, stronger, and more medially and superficially located of the two leg bones

Articulates proximally with the femur to form the knee joint

Articulates distally with the fibula and talus


The smaller, more laterally and deeply placed of the two leg bones. Articulates with the tibia



deep and funnel shaped, With a narrow pubic arch


shallow, broad, and flaring, with a wider pubic arch
Male skull —
larger with more prominent processes


rounded features

Skeletalsystem consists of

bones, blood vessels, nerves and other tissues grouped to form a complex operational unit

The heel bone is the


The tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula is the

A nondisplaced, or closed, fractureis also known as a

simple fracture.