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400 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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abandon (v.)
to leave; to give up
Ex: To save their lives, the sailors had to abandon the sinking ship.
adversely (adj.)
in a harmful way; negatively
Ex: Excessive rainfall early in the spring can adversely affect the planting of crops.
Usage Tips: adversely is often followed by affect.
aggregate (adj.)
gathered into or amounting to a whole - ที่รวบรวมเข้าไว้ด้วยกัน
Ex: It is impossible to judge last year's performance without knowing the aggregate sales numbers.
Usage Tips: aggregate is often followed by a term like sum, total, or numbers.
cultivation (n.)
preparing the land to grow crops; improvement for agricultural purposes - การเพาะปลูก
Ex: With the development of land cultivation, hunters and gatherers were able to settle in one place.
fertilize (v.)
to supply with nourishment for plants by adding helpful substances to the soil - ใส่ปุ๋ย
Ex: This farm fertilize tomatoes more than any other crop.
intensify (v.)
to increase in power; to act with increased strength - เพิ่มความรุนแรงขึ้น เพิ่มขึ้น
Ex: Jacob's long absence intensify his certainty that he should marry Rose.
irrigation (n.)
the supplying of water to dry land - การทดน้ำ การชลประทาน
Ex: In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farm-land for irrigation.
obtain (v.)
to gain possession of; to get
Ex: After a series of difficult interviews, he finally was able to obtain the job.
photosynthesis (n.)
the process by which green plants make their own food by combining water, salts, and carbon dioxide in the presence of light
Ex: Oxygen is a by-product of the process of photosynthesis.
precipitation (n.)
water that falls to the Earth's surface - น้ำฝน หิมะ
Ex: In the Pacific Northwest, the high level of precipitation ensures rich, green plant life.
anticipate (v.)
to expect; to sense something before it happens - คาดหวัง คาดการณ์ล่วงหน้า
Ex: By placing sensors in earthquake-prone areas, scientists can anticipate some tremors in time to warn the public.
catastrophic (adj.)
Extremely harmful; causing financial or physical ruin - อย่างร้ายแรง อย่างวิบัติ
Ex: The architect died in a catastrophic elevator accident.
collide (v.)
to come together with great or violent force - ขัดแย้งกันกัน ไม่เห็นด้วยอย่างยิ่งกับ
Ex: As usual, their holiday was ruined when their in-laws' views on politics collide with their own.
eruption (n.)
a sudden, often violent, outburst - การระเบิด การลุกลาม
Ex: The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 caused 57 deaths and immeasurable change to the face of the mountain.
Usage Tips: eruption is often followed by an of phrase.
famine (n.)
severe hunger; a drastic food shortage - ความอดอยาก ความขาดแคลน
Ex: The potato famine in Ireland in the mid-nineteenth century caused large numbers of Irish people to emigrate to America.
flood (n.)
an overflowing of water; an excessive amount
Ex: The constant rain and poor drainage system caused a flood in town.
Ex: The political party sent out a flood of letters criticizing their opponents.
impact (n.)
a strong influence - การกระทบ ผลกระทบ
Ex: The speech about the importance of education made an impact on me.
Usage Tips: impact is usually followed by on or of.
persevere (v.)
to keep going, despite obstacles or discouragement; to maintain a purpose - วิริยะ อุตสาหะ
Ex: The hikers persevere despite the bad weather and the icy trail.
plunge (v.)
to go down suddenly; to decrease by a great amount in a short time - ถลาลงไป พุ่งเข้าไป
Ex: He jumped off the diving board and plunge into the pool.
Ex: The value of the company's stock plunge after its chief executive was arrested.
Usage Tips: plunge is often followed by an into phrase.
unleash (v.)
to release a thing or an emotion
Ex: When they saw the strange man on their property, they unleash their dogs.
Ex: He is from such an unemotional family, he will never learn to unleash his feelings.
adapt (v.)
to adjust to the circumstances; to make suitable
Ex: Dinosaurs could not adapt to the warmer temperatures.
Ex: The teacher adapt the exercises for his more advanced students.
Usage Tips: adapt is often followed by to.
diverse (adj.)
various; showing a lot of differences within a group
Ex: India is one of the most linguistically diverse countries in the world.
Usage Tips: An -ly adverb (e.g., linguistically) often comes before diverse.
evolve (v.)
to develop; to come forth
Ex: Modern-day sharks evolve from their ancestor Eryops, which lived more than 200 million years ago.
Usage Tips: evolve is often followed by into or from.
feature (n.)
part, characteristic
Ex: The best featureof this car is its heated seats.
Usage Tips: feature is often followed by of.
generation (n.)
a group of people born at about the same time
Ex: As older managers retired, a new generation of leaders took control of the company.
Usage Tips: Before generation, an adjective like new, next, earlier, or older is common. generation is often followed by of.
inherent (adj.)
naturally characteristic; always found within something, because it's a basic part of that thing - มีอยู่โดยธรรมชาติ, มีอยู่โดยปกติ
Ex: No job can be interesting all the time. Boredom is inherent in any kind of work.
Usage Tips: inherent is often followed by in.
migration (n.)
movement from one place to another by a group of people or animals
Ex: The migration of farm workers from one state to the next depends primarily on the harvest.
Usage Tips: migration is often followed by to or from.
physical (adj.)
related to the body; related to materials that can be seen or felt
Ex: Because of the shape of its throat, an ape does not have the physical ability to speak.
Ex: The mountains form a physical barrier between the west and the east.
Usage Tips: physical usually comes before the noun it describes.
process (n.)
a series of steps leading to a result
Ex: To get a good job, most people go through a long process of letter-writing and interviews.
Usage Tips: process is often followed by of plus the -ing form of a verb.
survive (v.)
to continue living (despite some danger or illness)
Ex: After getting lost in the mountains, Gordon survive+ by eating wild plants and catching fish.
Usage Tips: survive is often followed by a phrase with by.
constraint (n.)
something that restricts thought or action
Ex: The constraint + of military life kept Eileen from seeing Private Morris more than once a month.
contamination (n.)
being made less clean by a germ or hazardous substance - การปนเปื้อน, การทำให้เปรอะ
Ex: The contamination in the river came from the factory located just upstream.
deplete (v.)
to greatly decrease the supply of a resource or material - ลด (จำนวน, ปริมาณ) ลง
Ex: The prolonged war deplete+ the country's national treasury.
dispose of (v.)
to throw away; to get rid of; to kill - กำจัด (คู่แข่ง, ขยะ) ; ฆ่า (ศัตรู)
Ex: She dispose of+ her unwanted possessions before moving. The tyrant cruelly disposed of all his enemies.
Usage Tips: dispose of should be learned as a unit. In this meaning, dispose of+ does not occur without of.
elementally (adv.)
in terms of elements; basically - โดยส่วนประกอบ, โดยองค์ประกอบ
Ex: elementally, coal and diamonds are the same.
emission (n.)
sending out from a small space into the general environment; a substance discharged into the air
Ex: The Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of pollutants into the air.
Usage Tips: emission is usually followed by an of phrase.
extinction (n.)
complete disappearance; the end of existence
Ex: Human beings have caused the extinction of many other species.
Usage Tips: extinction implies an absolute end; an extinction+ thing cannot be brought back into existence.
reservoir (n.)
a place where a liquid is collected and stored - ทะเลสาบเทียม, อ่างเก็บน้ำ
Ex: Cult members threatened to poison the town's water reservoir.
shrink (v.)
to become reduced in size, amount, or value - (grow smaller) หดลง, เล็กลง
Ex: If you dry your clothing on the "high heat" setting, they may shrink.
stable (adj.)
firm and dependable; showing little change - มั่นคง, คงที่, ทรงตัว
Ex: He fell because the ladder wasn't stable.
adjust (v.)
to change; to get accustomed to something
Ex: Travelers are advised to adjust their watches before arriving in the new time zone.
arbitrary (adj.)
chosen simply by whim or chance, not for any specific reason - (random) ที่ส่งเดช, ไม่มีกฎเกณฑ์, ซึ่งสุ่มทำ; (capricious) ตามอำเภอใจ, ที่พลการ
Ex: The decision to build a school in Blackberry Township was arbitrary, without any thought to future housing patterns.
denominator (n.)
the number written below the line in a fraction - ตัวหาร
Ex: In the fraction 1⁄2, the number 2 is the denominator.
Usage Tips: The phrase lowest common denominator means "the most basic and unsophisticated things that most people share.
exponentially (adv.)
at a very fast rate - อย่างกับยกกำลัง, อย่างรวดเร็วมาก
Ex: In Turkey, the value of the lira has decreased exponentially in the last several decades.
Usage Tips: exponentially is taken from mathematics, where an exponentially + is a number indicating how many times something is multiplied by itself. For example, 43 contains the exponentially + "3", indicating 4 × 4 × 4.
infinitesimal (adj.)
immeasurably small - เล็กน้อยเหลือเกิน, เล็กจนวัดไม่ได้, เหลือที่จะวัด
Ex: The number of contaminants in the water was infinitesimal, so the water was safe to drink.
maximize (v.)
to increase or make as great as possible
Ex: A coach helps each athlete maximize his or her potential.
parallel (adj.)
being an equal distance apart everywhere
Ex: The street where I live runs parallel to the main road through town.
Usage Tips: parallel is often followed by to.
proportion (n.)
a part in relation to the whole - (portion) สัดส่วน; (in recipe) สัดส่วน
Ex: The average employee spends a large proportion of each workday answering e-mails.
Usage Tips: proportion is often followed by of.
rate (n.)
the cost per unit of a good or service; the motion or change that happens in a certain time
Ex: Postal rate + in Japan are among the highest in the world.
Usage Tips: Some grasses grow at the rate of one inch per day.
sequence (v.)
to organize or arrange in succession
Ex: Volunteers have been asked to sequence the files and organize the boxes.
accuracy (n.)
precision; exactness - ความถูกต้องแม่นยำ
Ex: The research department checks all our articles for accuracy of facts before we print them.
Usage Tips: accuracy is often followed by of.
adjacent (adj.)
next to - ใกล้กัน, ติดต่อกัน, อยู่ข้างกัน
Ex: Even though the villages are adjacent to each other, their residents speak different languages.
Usage Tips: adjacent is often followed by to.
compress (v.)
to press together - (squeeze) บีบ, อัด (into เข้าไป)
Ex: To make the foundation stronger, they compress + the soil before pouring the concrete.
feasibly (adv.)
practically; in a way that can work - เป็นไปได้
Ex: Scientists can't feasibly bring energy from deep ocean currents to where it is needed-on land.
gut (v.)
to empty or hollow out
Ex: In order to remodel the house, we must first gut it and throw away all the old fixtures.
Usage Tips: gut also means "the stomach of an animal"; this verb makes an image, that the inside of a building is like the inside of an animal.
integrally (adv.)
in a whole or complete manner - (of a whole) ทั้งหมด, ทั้งมวล,

(whole, complete) เต็ม, บริบูรณ์

Ex: Writing and spelling are taught integrally as part of the reading program.
overlap (v.)
to lie over part of something; to have elements in common
Ex: One of the two assistants will likely get fired, since most of their duties in the office overlap .
retain (v.)
to keep or hold
Ex: The rain fell so heavily that the banks of the river could not retain all the water.
seep (v.)
to pass slowly for a long time, as a liquid or gas might - ไหลซึม
Ex: As the containers rusted, the toxic waste seep + into the ground.
Usage Tips: seep is often followed by into or through.
structure (n.)
something constructed, such as a building - วิธีก่อสร้าง;โครงสร้าง; [Music] การเรียบเรียงส่วนต่างๆ เข้าด้วยกัน
Ex: Most companies have a social structure that can't be understood by outsiders.
circulate (v.)
to move throughout an area or group; to move along a somewhat circular route - หมุนเวียน; (คน) วนไปรอบ; (ข่าว) เวียนไปทั่ว
Ex: The gossip circulate + quickly through the small town.
Ex: Blood circulate + more quickly during physical exercise.
Usage Tips: circulate is often followed by through.
corrode (v.)
to be slowly weakened by chemical reactions - ทำให้กร่อน, กัดทำลาย (เหล็ก, หิน) ; [figurative] ค่อยๆ ทำลาย (ความหวัง)
Ex: Sitting in salt water, the old coins corrode + and became very easy to break.
Usage Tips: A familiar kind of corrode + produces rust, the reddish coating on iron or steel that has been exposed to air and water.
derive (v.)
to come from, usually through a long, slow process - ได้ บางสิ่ง จาก บางสิ่ง
Ex: The Cyrillic alphabet was derive + from the Greek alphabet.
Usage Tips: derive is often followed by from.
detection (n.)
discovering something that cannot easily be found
Ex: With new medical technology, the detection of cancer is much easier nowadays.
Usage Tips: detection is often followed by an of phrase.
expeditiously (adv.)
quickly and efficiently - ว่องไว (= prompt, quick, speed)
Ex: Using carrier pigeons, the military commanders exchanged messages expeditiously.
implement (v.)
to make use of; to carry out
Ex: Not until after the new software was installed could we implement the new filing system.
installation (n.)
setting something into position for use
Ex: installation of the new software takes only four minutes.
maintenance (n.)
the act of keeping something in good condition
Ex: The only problem with living in such a big house is that it requires a lot of maintenance.
simulation (n.)
an imitation or representation
Ex: To test car safety, automobile makers study crash simulation +.
innovative (adj.)
ahead of the times; novel - เป็นของใหม่, ใช้ชีวิตใหม่
Ex: The innovative use of props and lighting drew many favorable comments.
combustion (n.)
the process of burning
Ex: When air quality is poor, combustion of materials in a fireplace is prohibited.
Usage Tips: combustion is often followed by of.
component (n.)
one part of a system or whole
Ex: Their home theater system has a number of separate component +.
Usage Tips: component is often followed or preceded by of.
convey (v.)
to transport from one place to another; to transmit or make known
Ex: A messenger convey + the prince's letter to the commander of the army.
Ex: The worst part about being a doctor was when she had to convey bad news to a family.
discretely (adv.)
separately; distinctly - แยกออกต่างหาก, แยกออกเป็นตัวของตัวเอง
Ex: In order to understand how the engine worked, each component needed to be studied discretely.
nucleus (n.)
a central or essential part around which other parts are gathered; a core - ศูนย์กลาง; (of collection) ส่วนกลางหรือของมีรูปกลมที่เป็นที่รวมของส่วนอื่นๆ
Ex: The nucleus of many European cities is the town square.
Usage Tips: nucleus is often followed by of.
permeate (v.)
to spread or flow through out ; to pass through or penetrate - (get into) ผ่าน; (pass through) ซึมผ่าน; (saturate) ชุ่มไปทั่ว
Ex: The smell of cooking permeate + the entire apartment building.
rotate (v.)
to turn around; to take turns in sequence
Ex: The planet rotate + on its axis once every 14 Earth days.
Ex: The children rotate classroom responsibilities on a weekly basis.
solar (adj.)
of, or relating to, the sun - แห่งดวงอาทิตย์
Ex: The ancient society kept time with a solar calendar.
source (n.)
the point of origin or creation
Ex: The reporter was unable to identify the source of the information for his story.
trigger (v.)
to set off or initiate - ทำให้เกิดปฏิกิริยารุนแรง, ทำให้กระบวนการดำเนินการไป
Ex: I was certain any mention of politics would trigger a big argument.
acquisition (n.)
the act of taking possession of something - การแสวงหา, การสะสมสมบัติ; (of goods, wealth, land) (การสะสม) ;
Ex: Our recent acquisition of over 2,000 books makes ours the biggest library in the region.
Usage Tips: acquisition is often followed by of.
anomaly (n.)
something unusual - ความผิดปกติ, สิ่งที่ผิดปกติ; (exception) ข้อยกเว้น
Ex: White tigers get their beautiful coloring from a genetic anomaly.
consciously (adv.)
with awareness of one's actions - อย่างรู้ตัว, อย่างมีสติ
Ex: He may have hurt her feelings, but he never would have done so consciously.
degrade (v.)
to reduce in value or strength - ทำให้แตกสลายเป็นชิ้นเล็กชิ้นน้อย, สึกกร่อน
Ex: The roads in cold or wet areas of the United States degrade faster than those in warm, sunny regions.
gap (n.)
opening; a big difference in amount or quality - ช่องว่าง; (in sparking plug) ระยะระหว่างขั้วไฟ
Ex: The small gap between the walls in the old house caused cold drafts to come in.
indisputable (adj.)
beyond doubt; unquestionable - [อย่าง] โต้แย้งไม่ได้
Ex: The members of the jury found her guilty because they found the facts of the case indisputable.
intervene (v.)
to come between - เข้ามาแทรกแซง เข้ามาเป็นคนกลาง
Ex: A good mediator intervene + only as much as necessary to settle a dispute between other parties.
intuitively (adv.)
by means of a natural sense about things that are hard to observe - อย่างสังหรณ์ใจ
Ex: Many mothers know intuitively when something is wrong with their children.
recede (v.)
to move back or away from - (น้ำท่วม) ลดลง; (แนวชายฝั่ง) หายไป; (ศีรษะ) เถิก
Ex: After the age of 30, his hairline began to recede further back from his forehead.
retrieve (v.)
to bring or get back - แก้ไข (การผิดพลาด) ; กอบกู้ (สถานการณ์),


Ex: Most dogs can be trained to retrieve objects that their owners have thrown.
agnostic (adj.)
believing that humans cannot know whether there is a god - แบบอไญยนิยาม
Ex: His devoutly Christian parents had problems with his agnostic beliefs.
animism (n.)
the belief that natural objects, such as trees, have souls - คติถือผีสางเทวดา, วิญญาณนิยม
Ex: Desert cultures that practice animism often believe that winds contain spirits.
atheist (n.)
one who does not believe in the existence of a supreme being - คนถือลัทธิอเทวนิยม, ผู้ที่เชื่อว่าไม่มีพระเจ้า
Ex: He argued that his scientific training made it impossible for him to be anything but an atheist.
be inclined to (v.)
to favor an opinion or a course of action - เพื่อสนับสนุนความคิดเห็นหรือแนวทางปฏิบัติ
Ex: He couldn't say which candidate he favored, but he had always been inclined to + vote Republican.
contemplate (v.)
to consider thoughtfully - พิจารณา, ตรึกตรอง; (mentally) คิดใคร่ครวญ
Ex: If you contemplate each step for so long, we will never complete this project on time.
deify (v.)
to worship as a god - บูชาเป็นพระเจ้า (= apotheosize, exalt)
Ex: When people deify the leader of their country, the leader is able to abuse power more easily.
ecclesiastical (adj.)
relating to a church - เกี่ยวกับศาสนาคริสต์, เกี่ยวกับพระ (ในศาสนาคริสต์)
Ex: He was looking specifically for a university where he could study ecclesiastical history.
exalt (v.)
to praise or honor - ยกให้สูง
Ex: He would often exalt the virtues of his new wife.
pious (adj.)
having or exhibiting religious reverence - เคร่งครัดในศาสนา, มีศรัทธาแก่กล้า
Ex: Sometimes she was so pious that the rest of us felt like heathens.
sacrifice (v.)
anything offered to a deity as a religious thanksgiving; giving up something in order to have something more valuable later on - เสียสละ, บวงสรวง
Ex: Every harvest time, the Fadeloni people sacrifice + vegetables to their gods as a show of thanks.
Ex: In order to succeed in his career, he had to sacrifice his private life and his leisure time.
aggravate (v.)
to make worse; to anger or intensify -เพิ่มความรุนแรง (การโต้แย้ง) ; ทำให้เลวร้ายลงไป (สถานการณ์)
Ex: Running will aggravate your sore knees.
decrepit (adj.)
weakened or worn out because of age, illness, or excessive use -เสื่อมสภาพไปตามอายุ; (dilapidated) (บ้าน) ผุพัง; (เมือง) เสื่อมโทรม
Ex: The once-beautiful building was now dirty, decrepit, and roofless.
disease (n.)
an unhealthful condition caused by an infection or a long-term physical problem
Ex: Thanks to developments in medicine, many once-fatal disease + can now be cured.
fatally (adv.)
causing death or disaster -อย่างร้ายแรงถึงชีวิต; (เสน่ห์) ที่เป็นอันตราย; (disastrously) อย่างย่อยยับ; (เจ็บ) อย่างสาหัส
Ex: The soldier was fatally wounded in the battle.
forensics (n.)
the use of science and technology to investigate facts in criminal cases -นิติเวชศาสตร์
Ex: Advances in the study of forensics have made it much easier to identify criminals from very small traces of evidence.
persist (v.)
to continue to exist; to hold to a purpose, despite any obstacle -(continue firmly) ทำต่ออย่างมั่นคง, ยืนกราน, ทะเยอทะยาน
Ex: If your symptoms persist, you should go see a doctor.
Ex: Lola persist + in her efforts to become a lawyer.
prognosis (n.)
an educated guess of how something will develop, especially a disease -(forecast) การพยากรณ์โรค
Ex: The room fell silent when the doctor gave Senator Grebe a grim prognosis of months of treatment.
terminal (adj.)
located at an end; approaching death -ปลายสุด, ท้ายสุด; [Medicine] ที่ทำให้ถึงแก่ชีวิต, ใกล้จะเสียชีวิต
Ex: The cancer ward at the hospital held both terminal and recovering patients.
vein (n.)
any of the tubes that form a branching system, especially those that carry blood to the heart -เส้นเลือดที่นำโลหิตไปสู่หัวใจ; (in popular use: any blood vessel) หลอดเลือด, เส้นเลือด, สายเลือด
Ex: She became fascinated with human anatomy, especially when she learned how vein + transport oxygen.
wound (v.)
to inflict an injury on -ทำให้เป็นแผลบาดเจ็บ; [figurative] มีผลกระทบ, ทำลาย
Ex: Sometimes he didn't realize his sharp humor could wound as well as entertain.
anesthesia (n.)
techniques for reducing sensation and feeling, especially to control pain - การระงับความรู้สึก
Ex: The Civil War was the first American war when anesthesia was widely used in surgery on soldiers.
Usage Tips: anesthesia and anesthesia + are often used interchangeably.
augment (v.)
to make bigger or better by adding to -เพิ่ม (กำลัง, รายได้)
Ex: In some types of popular cosmetic surgery people augment parts of their bodies.
Ex: The college augment + its course offerings because students complained that there were too few choices.
certifiably (adv.)
in a manner that is officially recognized -สามารถพิสูจน์รับรองได้
Ex: He couldn't be institutionalized until he was declared certifiably insane.
complication (n.)
a factor that makes something more difficult or complex
Ex: The surgeons could not easily stop the bleeding because of complication + related to the patient's diabetes.
cure (v.)
to restore to health
Ex: They say laughter can help cure many illnesses.
implant (v.)
to set in firmly; to insert in the body surgically - ใส่ลงไป (ในร่างกาย)
Ex: The actress had cheek implant + to make her face look fuller.
inject (v.)
to insert a liquid by means of a syringe
Ex: The doctor used a needle to inject the medicine slowly into her arm.
obese (adj.)
Excessively overweight -อ้วนมาก, อ้วนฉุ
Ex: More Americans are obese now because U.S. culture encourages overeating and discourages exercise.
procedure (n.)
a specific way of performing or doing something
Ex: The flight attendant explained the emergency evacuation procedure.
scar (n.)
a mark on the skin left after a wound has healed; a lasting sign of damage, either mental or physical - แผลเป็น
Ex: The surgery was successful, but it left a large scar across her abdomen.
astrological (adj.)
related to the study of the position of stars, the sun, and the planets in the belief that they influence earthly events -เกี่ยวกับโหราศาสตร์
Ex: Every day, Mona read her astrological forecast in the newspaper, and she was careful if the horoscope predicted trouble.
divination (n.)
foretelling the future by finding patterns in physical objects -(foreseeing) การทำนายอนาคต, การพยากรณ์อย่างแม่นยำ
Ex: In Turkey, women offer divination + by reading the dregs from a coffee cup.
haunt (v.)
to continually appear (in the form of a ghost) in the same place or to the same person -(trouble) (ความหลัง, การคิด) รบกวน, กวนใจ
Ex: Some say the ghost of Princess Hilda haunt + this castle, appearing as a headless form while she plays the piano.
Ex: The pictures of children dying in war have haunt + me for a long time.
horror (n.)
strong fear mixed with disgust - ความเกลียดกลัว; (repugnance) ความเสียขวัญ, ความขยะแขยง
Ex: On Halloween night, all the horror movies were rented out.
intermediary (n.)
acting as an agent between people or things - คนกลาง, คนไกล่เกลี่ย
Ex: The plaintiff's lawyer suggested that they hire an intermediary to help them discuss their case.
Usage Tips: intermediary comes from the Latin words meaning "between the ways".
invoke (v.)
to call on for support -(call on) ขอร้อง; (appeal to) อุทธรณ์, วิงวอน, เรียกร้อง, นำมาซึ่ง
Ex: In many religions, believers invoke their god by holding out their hands.
meditate (v.)
to reflect; to think quietly and deeply for a long time -(consider) พิจารณา, ใคร่ครวญ; (design) คิดวางแผนในใจ
Ex: Every morning, the monks meditate + for three hours in complete silence.
phantom (n.)
a dimly visible form, usually thought to be the spirit of a dead person, a sunken ship, etc. -(spectre) ผี; (image) ภาพลวงตา
Ex: Many visitors reported seeing a phantom who appeared around the lake.
psychic (adj.)
relating to the supposed ability of the human mind to sense things that cannot be observed -เหนือธรรมชาติ, มหัศจรรย์;เกี่ยวกับเวทมนตร์หรือการเข้าฌาน, ลึกลับ, มีความหมายซ่อนเร้น
Ex: The governor's assistant claimed to have unique psychic abilities enabling him to read people's minds.
self-perpetuating (adj.)
having the power to renew oneself for an indefinite period of time -ที่ธำรงตนให้อยู่ต่อโดยไม่มีการผลักดันภายนอก
Ex: It is difficult to escape from a lie, as they are often self-perpetuating.
assimilate (v.)
to consume and incorporate; to become similar -(make like) ทำให้เหมือน, ทำให้กลมกลืน
Ex: Not all of the overseas students could assimilate into the rigidly controlled school.
Usage Tips: assimilate is often followed by into.
cremation (n.)
the act of burning the dead -การเผาศพ, ฌาปนกิจ
Ex: cremation is particularly common in Japan, where land for burial is very limited.
domesticate (v.)
to make something suitable for being in a home (usually a plant or animal) -(naturalize) ปรับให้เข้ากับสภาพแวดล้อม (พืช)
Ex: The Barnes family hoped to domesticate the tiger, but their neighbors were skeptical.
Usage Tips: The object of domesticate is usually a plant or animal.
folklore (n.)
traditional myths of a people (beliefs, customs, and stories of a community) transmitted orally -(traditional beliefs) คติชาวบ้าน, ตำนานพื้นเมือง
Ex: Through folklore, archaeologists have learned about the migration of Native Americans in North America.
fossilize (v.)
to become preserved in clay or stone or ash after death, so that a natural record is left of the original organism; to become rigid and stuck in old ways -ทำให้เป็นซากหิน; กลายเป็นซากหิน
Ex: The dinosaur eggs had fossilize + over thousands of years.
relic (n.)
something left from a long-ago culture, time period, or person -(surviving trace or memorial)สิ่ง/ของตกทอดที่เป็นอนุสรณ์; (remains, residue) ซากศพ, ซากวัตถุโบราณ
Ex: relic + of the war can still be found in the sand dunes along this shore.
rite (n.)
a ceremony meant to achieve a certain purpose -พิธีการทางศาสนา
Ex: Many cultures have fertility rite + that supposedly make it more likely for women to bear children.
ritually (adv.)
as part of a traditional ceremony or habit - อย่างเป็นพิธีการ
Ex: The children ritually kissed their parents on the cheek before bed.
saga (n.)
a long story about important events long ago; a long story of heroic achievement - เรื่องราวยืดยาว
Ex: Many American families tell saga + about their ancestors' arrival in the United States.
vestige (n.)
a visible trace that something once existed - vestige - ร่องรอย, ชิ้นส่วนเล็กน้อย
Ex: The wilted flowers were the only vestige of their romantic weekend.
amend (v.)
to change for the better -(correct) แก้ไข; (improve) ปรับปรุง (กฎหมาย, สถานการณ์, สัญญา)
Ex: The residents voted to amend their neighborhood policy on fences.
biased (adj.)
leaning unfairly in one direction -ที่ซึ่งลำเอียง (= prejudiced) (↔ unbiased, unprejudiced)
Ex: Her newspaper article was criticized for being heavily biased toward the mayor's proposal.
burden (n.)
something that is carried; a source of stress or worry -(load) น้ำหนักบรรทุก; [figurative] ภาระ
Ex: The donkey walked slowly under the burden of its heavy load.
Ex: The failing company faced the burden of bad debts and a poor reputation.
counter (v.)
to act in opposition to; to offer in response - โต้, ย้อน, กล่าวโต้
Ex: The hockey player counter + the punch with a smashing blow from his hockey stick.
Ex: Jane counter + every accusation with a specific example of her achievements.
de facto (adj.)
truly doing a job, even if not officially - มีอยู่จริง (จะโดยชอบธรรมหรือไม่ก็ตาม) ; โดยพฤตินัย
Ex: Popular support established the Citizens Party as the de factogovernment.
discriminate (v.)
to choose carefully among options; make an unjust or prejudicial distinction in the treatment of different categories of people or things, esp. on the grounds of race, sex, or age -(distinguish, use discernment) จำแนก, เห็นความแตกต่าง, แยก
Ex: The governor wisely discriminate + between urgent issues and those that could wait.
notion (n.)
A belief; a fanciful impulse, a conception of or belief about something; an impulse or desire, esp. one of a whimsical kind
Ex: The notion that older office equipment is unreliable is inaccurate.
Ex: One morning, she suddenly took the notion to paint her kitchen red.
Usage Tips: notion can be followed by a that clause or a to phrase.
oppress (v.)
to keep down by force; to weigh heavily on, by the unjust exercise of authority -ปกครองอย่างโหดร้าย, กดขี่; (weigh down) (ความรู้สึก) ทำให้หดหู่ใจ; ทำให้หนักใจ; (ความร้อนอบอ้าว) ทรมานร่างกาย
Ex: Factory management oppress + workers through intimidation.
paradigm (n.)
a pattern or model; a set of assumptions
Ex: The usual paradigm for economic growth in developed countries does not apply to some poor nations.
Usage Tips: paradigm is often followed by for.
prejudiced (adj.)
causing to judge prematurely and unfairly -มีอคติ (about, against เกี่ยวกับ)
Ex: Many consumers are prejudiced + against commercial goods made in third-world countries.
curriculum (n.)
the courses of study offered by an educational institution
Ex: The teachers met to design a new curriculum for the Intensive English Program.
distinctly (adv.)
in a way that is readily distinguishable by the senses; clearly - อย่างชัด, อย่างชัดเจน
Ex: I distinctly remember saying that we would meet at noon.
erudite (adj.)
highly educated; having or showing great knowledge or learning -มีความรู้สูง, คงแก่เรียน, แสดงว่ามีภูมิรู้สูง
Ex: Even though Stella was only a freshman, she was considered erudite by both her classmates and her professors.
fortify (v.)
to strengthen; protect against attack -สร้างสิ่งป้องกัน, เสริมกำลัง
Ex: The high-priced drink had extra vitamins and minerals to fortify the body.
implicitly (adv.)
without being stated; unquestioningly; in a way that is not directly expressed -อย่างเป็นนัย
Ex: By joining the competition, she agreed implicitly to the rules.
parochial (adj.)
restricted in outlook; relating to the local parish; small-minded, provincial, narrow, small-town - (ความคิด) แคบ
Ex: Marla moved from her rural community to get away from its parochial thinking.
Ex: Sending your children to a parochial school can cost as much as sending them to college.
rigor (n.)
strictness; difficult situations that come from following rules strictly - ความเข้มงวด, ความร้ายแรง
Ex: The wrestler followed his diet with rigor.
Ex: The rigor + of military life toughened the young men quickly.
roster (n.)
a list, especially of names -บัญชีรายชื่อ
Ex: Two of the names on the roster were misspelled.
secular (adj.)
worldly rather than spiritual; not related to religion -ไม่เกี่ยวกับทางธรรม, ไม่ขึ้นต่อกฎเกณฑ์ทางศาสนา, เป็นเรื่องทางโลก, โลกวิสัย
Ex: Few private schools in the United States are secular.
suspend (v.)
to cause to stop for a period; to hang as to allow free movement
Ex: The trial was suspend + when the judge learned that one of the jury members knew the defense lawyer.
Ex: The circus acrobat was suspend + in midair.
allegiance (n.)
loyalty, commitment -ความจงรักภักดี (to ต่อ)
Ex: My allegiance to my country is based on respect for its principles.
Usage Tips: allegiance is commonly followed by a to phrase.
artillery (n.)
large guns that shoot powerful shells; army units that handle such guns -ปืนใหญ่, กองพันทหารปืนใหญ่
Ex: An artillery barrage broke down the city's thick walls within seconds.
Ex: The 47th artillery fired on rebels camped in the city center.
Usage Tips: When it means a part of an army, artillery is sometimes plural.
battle (v.)
to fight against
Ex: The Viet Minh battle + French forces at Dien Bien Phu for nearly two months in 1954.
cease (v.)
Ex: The lightning continued even after the thunder had cease +.
Usage Tips: cease is found in official statements, not usually in everyday speech.
hierarchy (n.)
a system of levels that places people high or low according to their importance
Ex: Starting as a lowly private, Burt Jones gradually rose through the hierarchy of the army.
Usage Tips: hierarchy is often followed by an of phrase.
in the trenches (adv'l.)
in the middle of the hardest fighting or work
Ex: With their unrealistic view of this war, our generals don't know what things are like out in the trenches.
Usage Tips: in the trenches creates an image of soldiers fighting in a long, dug-out place in the battlefield.
mobilize (v.)
to put members of a group into motion -(render movable or effective) ทำให้เคลื่อนที่ได้; เกณฑ์, ระดมพล
Ex: After a terrible storm, the governor mobilize + the National Guard to rescue victims.
rank (v.)
to put into a many-leveled order, depending on importance or achievement - (arrange) จัดเข้าแถว, จัดอันดับ; มีตำแหน่ง, ยศเหนือกว่า
Ex: The Marines rank + Jim Hurst highest among all their officer candidates.
ratio (n.)
the relationship of one number or amount to another
Ex: Military analysts say that the ratio of attackers to defenders in a battle should be about three to one for the attackers to win.
Usage Tips: ratio is very often followed by an of ... to structure.
strategic (adj.)
related to long-term plans for achieving a goal -เกี่ยวกับยุทธศาสตร์
Ex: United States has formed strategic friendships with Tajikistan and Mongolia to have Central Asian bases in the future.
Usage Tips: strategic is often used with nouns for plans.
annex (v.)
to make something (usually land) part of another unit -(add) เพิ่ม, ต่อเติม (อาคาร) ; (append) แนบท้าย, ผนวก
Ex: Bardstown grew by annex + several farms at the north edge of town.
apex (n.)
the highest point -ปลาย, ยอด; (of heart, lung, etc.) ยอดบนของหัวใจ, ปอด; [figurative] จุดสูงสุด
Ex: Gregory knew that his running skills had to be at their apex during the tournament.
Usage Tips: apex is often used to describe the high point of someone's abilities.
collapse (v.)
to fall down, usually because of weakness
Ex: The roof collapse + on top of me.
conquest (n.)
a takeover by force or continued effort -การพิชิต
Ex: The first recorded conquest of Mt. Everest was by Tensing Norgay and Sir Edmund Hilary.
Usage Tips: conquest is usually followed by an of phrase.
devise (v.)
to find an original way to make an object or a plan -(plan) วางแผนอย่างรัดกุม; ออกแบบ (ชุด)
Ex: The soldiers devise a way to cross the river into enemy territory without being seen.
invasive (adj.)
aggressively entering into someone else's territory -ที่เป็นการรุกราน (= offensive)
Ex: Surgery with a laser is less invasive than surgery with a knife or scalpel.
prevailing (adj.)
strongest or most common -(common) ธรรมดาสามัญ
Ex: Theprevailing attitude among our neighbors is to be friendly but not too friendly.
resist (v.)
to refuse to give in to a strong force or desire -(withstand action of) ต่อต้าน, ต้านทาน
Ex: Although many native nations resist +, the U.S. government eventually took over almost all Indian land.
severely (adv.)
harshly; extremely -อย่างรุนแรง, อย่างเคร่งครัด, อย่างโหดเหี้ยม
Ex: Commanders severely punished any soldier who criticized the battle plan.
violation (n.)
an action that breaks a law or agreement; mistreatment of something that deserves respect -การฝ่าฝืน, การละเมิด
Ex: The army's testing of new weapons was a violation of the cease-fire agreement.
Ex: The sculptures at Mt. Rushmore may be a violation of sacred Indian land.
Usage Tips: violation is often followed by an of phrase.
chronologically (adv.)
in order according to time - ตามลำดับ
Ex: Allen's book is arranged chronologically, from the First Crusade in 1095 to the fall of Granada in 1492.
Usage Tips: chronologically is often used with arranged, organized, listed, or some other word for order.
coincide (v.)
happen or exist at the same time -(in space) เกิดขึ้นที่เดียวกัน;(in time) เกิดขึ้นในเวลาเดียวกัน
Ex: The Viking attacks on western Europe coincide + with an abnormally warm period in the Earth's climate.
Usage Tips: coincide is often followed by a with phrase.
consequence (n.)
a result, often one much later in time than the cause
Ex: One consequence of global warming may be the flooding of low lying islands.
Usage Tips: consequence usually implies something negative or serious about the result.
core (n.)
an area or object at the center
Ex: The core of India's film industry is in Bombay, where all but a few film studios are located.
Usage Tips: core is often followed by another noun (e.g., core principle) or by an of phrase.
deny (v.)
say that something is not true
Ex: Movie star Allen Butcher deny + that he and the Princess of Denmark were getting married.
Usage Tips: deny is often followed by the -ing form of a verb or by a that clause.
diminish (v.)
make something smaller or weaker; become smaller or weaker -เล็กลง; (จำนวน) ลดน้อยลง; (อิทธิพล, อำนาจ) อ่อนลง; (ค่า, ความหมาย) ลดลง
Ex: The Protestant Reformation diminish + the power of the Roman Catholic Pope.
Ex: Mr. Partridge's influence in the company diminish + after he relocated to a branch office.
longitude (n.)
a system of imaginary lines running from north to south along the Earth's surface, where each line is numbered from 0° to 180° west or east -[Geography] เส้นลองติจูด (ท.ศ.), เส้นแวง
Ex: The prime meridian, a line running through Greenwich, England, is marked as 0° longitude.
milieu (n.)
general environment or surroundings -สิ่งแวดล้อม, สังคมรอบข้าง
Ex: Many Vietnam veterans did not feel comfortable in the antiwar social milieu of the 1970s.
Orwellian (adj.)
frightening and overcontrolled by a government that interferes in nearly every aspect of personal life -น่ากลัวและควบคุมโดยรัฐบาลที่แทรกแซงในเกือบทุกแง่มุมของชีวิตส่วนตัว
Ex: Biometric devices like eye-scanners allow an Orwellian level of government knowledge about everyone's location.
reconciliation (n.)
coming back together peacefully after having been enemies -restoring to friendship) การคืนดีกัน;(making compatible) การปรองดองกัน
Ex: South Africa avoided a bloodbath after apartheid by setting up a Truth and reconciliation Commission.
allocate (v.)
to give out different amounts for different purposes
Ex: The budget allocate + billion to the military and only about billion to education.
Usage Tips: Things that can be allocate + are things that can be "spent"; money, time, energy, etc.
commodity (n.)
a thing that can be bought and sold, such as grain, oil, or wood - งของที่เป็นประโยชน์, โภคภัณฑ์; (not luxury) ของใช้, สิ่งที่ไม่หรูหรา
Ex: Tulip bulbs were one of the most valuable commodity + in seventeenth-century Holland.
Usage Tips: A thing is called a commodity only in the context of buying or selling it.
decline (v.)
to decrease in power or amount; politely refuse - (fall off) ลดลง, ตกลง; (ศีลธรรม, ราคา, จำนวน) ถดถอยลง; (สุขภาพ) ทรุดโทรมลง; (ความมั่นคง, วัฒนธรรม) เสื่อมโทรม
Ex: America's railroads decline + because the automobile dominated American life.
equity (n.)
the value of one's share in an investment - มูลค่าของหุ้น, หุ้นทุน
Ex: Barnard's equity in the business was one-third, or about
Usage Tips: In this meaning, equity is always singular and usually followed by an in phrase.
inflation (n.)
a situation in which prices for many items rise quite fast - สภาพเงินเฟ้อ
Ex: During the rapid inflation of the 1970s, prices for food and fuel sometimes rose 20 percent in a single month.
net (adj.)
after all costs have been subtracted from an amount - (free from deduction) ราคาสุทธิ, ราคาขาดตัว
Ex: My gross salary is around but my net pay is closer to
per capita (adv.)
for each person - ต่อหัว
Ex: Research shows we're likely to sell 15 light bulbs per capita per year in medium-sized cities.
regulate (v.)
control according to a set of rules - (control) ควบคุม; (subject to restriction) ทำให้เป็นระเบียบ
Ex: Trading on the NewYork Stock Exchange is regulate + by officials of the exchange and by federal law.
subsidy (n.)
money given by a government or other organization to support an activity - เงินช่วยเหลือ
Ex: Federal subsidy + to grain farmers have helped them stay in business despite three years of bad weather.
tangible (adj.)
obviously real because it can be seen, touched, or otherwise observed - (perceptible by touch) สัมผัสได้, จับต้องได้; (real, definite) มีตัวตน, แท้จริง, มีรูปร่าง, แน่นอน
Ex: One tangible benefit of putting electrical cables underground is a clearer view of the sky.
accumulate (v.)
to build up a large amount of something
Ex: Over several generations, the Hardington family accumulate + vast wealth by buying and selling land.
affluence (n.)
wealth and the style of life that goes with it - (wealth) ความมั่งคั่ง
Ex: Mohadzir grew up amid affluence, which poorly prepared him for his grad student days in crowded apartments with no servants.
elite (adj.)
belonging to a special, honored group; a group of people considered (by others or themselves) to be the best in a particular society or category, esp. because of their power, talent, or wealth - ซึ่งจำกัดไว้ให้เฉพาะคนรวยหรือคนที่มีอภิสิทธิ์
Ex: Messner is an elite climber who recently ascended an 8,000-meter mountain without extra oxygen.
impoverish (v.)
to make a person or group poor - ทำให้ยากจน
Ex: The collapse of the steel industry impoverish + several counties in eastern Ohio.
luxury (n.)
Extreme comfort, beyond what anyone needs
Ex: Automakers try to give their cars an image of luxury by including extras like heated seats and satellite tracking systems.
nobility (n.)
a group of socially prominent people with special titles given by a king or queen, such as "duke" or "countess" - ชนชั้นผู้ดี, สังคมชั้นสูง
Ex: In the Middle Ages, the nobility supposedly followed a code that required them to take care of poorer people who lived near their estates.
Usage Tips: nobility is used as a name for a group of distinguished people; it can also mean "a highly dignified form of behavior".
prestige (n.)
honor and respect for being better than the average - ชื่อเสียง, อิทธิพล, ความเคารพ
Ex: The Grassleys enjoyed the prestige of living in the historic town, but they did not feel at home there.
privileged (adj.)
able to enjoy special advantages because of one's position (usually because of being born into a wealthy or powerful family); having special rights, advantages, or immunities - เป็นเกียรติ, มีอภิสิทธิ์
Ex: Despite his privileged + position in one of America's most powerful families, the politician tried to portray himself as an ordinary person.
prosper (v.)
to do very well in one's business or personal life - เจริญ, (ศิลปะ) รุ่งเรือง; (บริษัท) ประสบความสำเร็จ
Ex: Vargas prosper + after finally patenting his new inventions.
Usage Tips: A person can prosper; so can a group, a company, or an area.
working class (n.)
people with low-paying (often unskilled) jobs who are not poor but who are not securely in the middle class -ชนชั้นกรรมาชีพ
Ex: The Farrelly family, like other members of the working class, were proud of their jobs and did not want any handouts from charity or the government.
acquire (v.)
to get something, usually something with special value or meaning -ได้มา (ที่ดิน, ทรัพย์สิน) ; ได้ (ประสบการณ์)
Ex: Bart hoped to acquire the 1898 D Indian Head penny, which would make his collection complete.
Usage Tips: Unlike get, acquire implies that a possession has special value or meaning.
assess (v.)
to estimate the value of something
Ex: The Barnes building was assess + at million, but it can probably sell for much more than that.
asset (n.)
a possession that has positive value -สินทรัพย์, (useful quality) คุณสมบัติ
Ex: The school is a asset to the community.
Usage Tips: Some examples of asset + are real estate, cash, and stock shares.
hazardous (adj.)
Ex: Parents have to be careful not to buy children's clothes and toys made of hazardous materials.
jointly (adv.)
together with one or more other parties - อย่างมีส่วนร่วม
Ex: In most states, a husband and wife are assumed to own all their possessions jointly.
lease (v.)
to rent something for a long time (several months or years) - (of land, business premises) สัญญาเช่า; (of house, flat, office) สัญญาเช่า
Ex: Some drivers prefer to lease a car rather than buy one.
liability (n.)
Legal responsibility for harming a person or property; a person or thing whose presence or behavior is likely to cause embarrassment or put one at a disadvantage - (legal obligation) พันธุกรรม, สิ่งที่บังคับทางกฎหมาย, ความรับผิด
Ex: Before you go river rafting, you sign a document releasing the trip leaders from liability in case of injury.
Ex: Henderson is just a liability to our work team, because he never finishes anything on time.
Usage Tips: In its second meaning, liability is often followed by a to phrase.
proprietor (n.)
owner, usually of a business or a building - เจ้าของ (ทรัพย์สิน, กิจการ)
Ex: The proprietor of Hekman's Windows is Nels Hekman, grandson of the people who established the factory.
Usage Tips: Very often, proprietor is followed by an of phrase.
safeguard (v.)
to protect ; protect from harm or damage with an appropriate measure: -คุ้มกัน
Ex: A burglar-alarm system safeguard + our house when we go away on vacation.
Usage Tips: safeguard implies continuous protection over a long time.
sole (adj.)
Ex: Many people have wanted to invest in Harry's publishing business, but he remains the sole owner.
Usage Tips: sole almost always appears before the noun it modifies. It does not come after a linking verb like be.
compensate (v.)
to give an employee money or other things in exchange for the work he or she does - ชดเชยสำหรับ บางสิ่ง
Ex: My pay doesn't properly compensate me for my efforts, but my other benefits, like health insurance, fill in the gap.
Usage Tips: compensate is often followed by a for phrase.
dynamic (adj.)
full of energy, activity, or progress - [อย่าง] เต็มเปี่ยมด้วยพละกำลัง, มีพลัง
Ex: This job requires a dynamic person, someone who will look for opportunities instead of just waiting around for them.
enterprising (adj.)
creative in thinking of ways to make money
Ex: Immigrants are often among the most enterprising members of society, partly because anyone brave enough to make an overseas move is likely to be a risk-taker.
Usage Tips: There is no verb "to enterprising +".
exploit (v.)
to take advantage of; to treat inconsiderately in order to profit; make full use of and derive benefit from (a resource) -ใช้ประโยชน์, ตักตวงประโยชน์ (จากสถานการณ์); (utilize) นำมาใช้ (ทรัพยากรธรรมชาติ, แหล่งน้ำมัน)
Ex: The company tried to exploit the low interest rates to expand operations.
Usage Tips: The foreign mining company exploit + our copper resources and then simply left.
incentive (n.)
a possible benefit that motivates a person to do a certain thing -(motivation) แรงกระตุ้น, เครื่องกระตุ้น, สิ่งดลใจ
Ex: This city's willingness to support its public schools gave us an incentive to move here with our two young children.
Usage Tips: incentive is usually followed by a to phrase.
industrious (adj.)
willing to work hard -ขยัน; (busy) ยุ่ง, ทำโน่นทำนี่
Ex: The Dutch settlements in Ottawa County were founded by industrious farmers who objected to frivolous behavior such as dancing.
Usage Tips: Only people can be industrious; companies cannot.
marginal (adj.)
not very significant or effective - ร่อแร่, แทบจะไม่พอเพียง
Ex: Our new advertising campaign had only marginal success, raising sales by a mere 3 percent.
merit (n.)
value; success based on one's work, not on luck -(worth) คุณความดี
Ex: Pay raises at our company are based on merit, as determined by a committee of managers.
Usage Tips: merit is uncountable.
promote (v.)
to move someone to a higher position in a company -(advance) เลื่อนขั้น/ชั้น
Ex: Because of his excellent handling of the Vredeman account, Jim Harris was promote + to vice president.
Usage Tips: promote is very often followed by a to phrase indicating the position one has been moved up to.
resign (v.)
to quit one's job -(hand over) ลาออก (จากตำแหน่ง) ; สละ (สิทธิ)
Ex: Because of controversy over his leadership style, Morton resign+ from his job as president.
distill (v.)
to remove one liquid from a mixture of liquids by boiling; to get something valuable from a confusing mix of ideas -กลั่น (น้ำ, เหล้า)
Ex: The forest peoples of Southeast Asia distill an alcoholic drink called arak from a paste of palm berries.
Ex: Most students are confused by her lectures, but Joe can always distill her main idea.
entrepreneurial (adj.)
able to create business opportunities from a wide variety of circumstances
Ex: Many engineers of the 1970s made great computers, but only a few were entrepreneurial enough to see the business possibilities in the new machines.
extract (v.)
to take out -เอาออกมา, ถอน (ฟัน) ; ดึง (หนาม) ออกมา
Ex: International mining companies came to the Malay Peninsula to extract the region's massive tin deposits.
haggle (v.)
To argue back and forth about a price -ต่อปากต่อคำ (over, about เกี่ยวกับ); (over price) ต่อรองราคา
Ex: The customer and the shopkeeper haggle+ over the silver plate for more than an hour.
Usage Tips: haggle is often followed by a phrase with over or about.
intrepid (adj.)
fearless -[อย่าง] กล้าหาญ, [อย่าง] ทรหด
Ex: For nearly 200 years, only the most intrepid colonists would cross the Appalachian Mountains.
merchant (n.)
a person who makes a living by selling things -(trader) พ่อค้า
Ex: The spice merchant+ of the eastern markets charged top prices to the Dutch and British sailors, who had come too far to sail away without buying.
Usage Tips: The word merchant might be preceded by another noun telling what the merchant sells (e.g., spice merchant or wine merchant).
proportionately (adv.)
in an amount appropriate to each of several recipients -อย่างสอดคล้อง (= correspondingly)
Ex: The food aid was distributed proportionately per family, with larger families receiving more.
prototype (n.)
the first one made of a machine or system -ต้นแบบ, แม่แบบ
Ex: The airplane manufacturer uses robots to test every prototype, just in case there is a problem with the design.
reward (n.)
something one gets for having done well -สิ่งตอบแทน, รางวัล; (for kindness) รางวัลตอบแทน; (recog-nition of merit etc.) สิ่งแสดงคุณงามความดี
Ex: The greatest reward of being a parent is to see your child make a wise decision.
Usage Tips: reward might be followed by an of or for phrase naming what one has done well.
shuttle (v.)
to move back and forth often between two places -(in loom, sewing machine) กระสวย
Ex: The small jet shuttle+ between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore nearly every two hours.
advocate (v.)
to speak out in favor of something; publicly recommend or support -(of a cause) ผู้สนับสนุน, ผู้ส่งเสริม; (for a person) ผู้แก้ต่าง; [Law] (professional pleader) ทนายความ
Ex: Some environmentalists advocate removing large dams from the Columbia River.
Usage Tips: advocate is usually followed by a term for a process or action, very often the -ing form of a verb
authority (n.)
the power to make decisions, to tell others what to do.
Ex: The governor has the authority to call the legislature together for emergency sessions.
Usage Tips: A to phrase often follows authority.
bitterly (adv.)
strongly and with a lot of bad feelings -อย่างเจ็บปวด, อย่างขมขื่น, อย่างร้ายแรง
Ex: Senator Thomas bitterly opposed the movement to design a new state flag.
candidate (n.)
someone who wants to be chosen, especially in an election, for a position
Ex: In most U.S. elections, there are only two major-party candidates for president.
Usage Tips: candidate is often followed by a for phrase.
coalition (n.)
a group of several different groups or countries that are working together to achieve a certain goal.- การรวมกลุ่มพรรคการเมือง, การรวมตัว
Ex: Several local churches, mosques, synagogues, and temples formed a coalition to promote understanding among people of different religions.
contest (v.)
to challenge; oppose (an action, decision, or theory) as mistaken or wrong -(competition) การแข่งขัน, การชิงชัย
Ex: Dave Roper, who narrowly lost the mayor's race, contest + the results, demanding a recount of the votes.
Usage Tips: The noun contest can mean a game, especially one played for a prize.
election (n.)
a process in which people choose officials
Ex: Because of problems with vote-counting four years ago, international observers monitored this year's election to make sure it was fair.
inaugurate (v.)
to bring into public office; to start formally -(admit to office) เข้ารับตำแหน่งเป็นทางการ;(officially open) เปิดเป็นทางการ;
Ex: The U.S. president is elected in November but is not inaugurate + until the following January.
Ex: An effort to bring electric service to farms and small towns was inaugurate + with the Rural Electrification Act of 1936.
Usage Tips: When it means "bring into public office," inaugurate is usually in the passive voice.
policy (n.)
an approved way for approaching a certain kind of situation
Ex: The policy said that government money could not be given to any private hospital.
poll (v.)
to find out a small group's opinion so that you can guess what a much larger group thinks - (voting) การลงคะแนนเสียง; (to elect sb.) การลงคะแนนเสียงเลือกบุคคล; (result of vote) ผลของการลงคะแนนเสียง; (number of votes) จำนวนคะแนนเสียง
Ex: The newspaper poll + 500 registered voters and found that only 27 percent were in favor of expanding the city zoo.
accuse (v.)
to say that someone did something wrong (e.g., committed a crime) -(charge) กล่าวหา; (law (indict)) กล่าวโทษ
Ex: Jordan was accuse + of using a stolen credit card to buy about worth of electronic equipment.
Usage Tips: accuse is often used in the passive voice.
allegedly (adv.)
according to what people say, although there is no proof -ถูกกล่าวหา (= assertedly)
Ex: The chief financial officer of the company allegedly took company money for his personal use.
civil (adj.)
involving a dispute between two citizens, not a criminal charge -ที่เกี่ยวข้องกับข้อพิพาทระหว่างประชาชนสองคนไม่ใช่ความผิดทางอาญา; [Law] เกี่ยวกับกฎหมายแพ่ง
Ex: in a civil suit against his neighbor, Barney claimed that the neighbor's dog had bitten him.
Usage Tips: In a court context, civil almost always appears in one of the following phrases: civil suit, civil action, civil court, civil proceedings, and civil penalties.
convict (v.)
to decide that someone is guilty of a crime; declare (someone) to be guilty of a criminal offense -(declare guilty) ตัดสินว่ากระทำผิด
Ex: Dean was convict + of assault after the jury saw a video of him striking another man.
Usage Tips: convict is often used in the passive voice.
guilty (adj.)
responsible for doing something bad - มีความผิด; (prompted by guilt) (สีหน้า, นัยน์ตา) ส่อพิรุธ, ลนลาน
Ex: The jury found that the director was guilty of embezzlement.
Usage Tips: guilty is often followed by an of phrase that names a crime or bad deed.
offense (n.)
a specific act that breaks the law - การกระทำผิดทางกฏหมาย
Ex: Convicted twice of reckless driving, Victor will lose his license if he commits another serious traffic offense.
peer (n.)
a person who is one's social equal; a person of the same age, status, or ability as another specified person - คนที่เท่าเทียมกัน
Ex: In requiring judgment by "a jury of one's peer +," U.S. law meant to protect lower-class defendants from the possibly biased judgment of upper-class juries.
suspect (n.)
someone who, in the opinion of the police, might have committed a certain crime -(imagine to be likely) สงสัย, ระแวง
Ex: The police were investigating the activities of five suspect + in the liquor-store robbery.
verdict (n.)
a judgment in a court case - คำตัดสิน [ของคณะลูกขุน]; (judgement) คำตัดสิน; (decision) การตัดสินใจ, การลงความเห็น
Ex: It took the jury only 30 minutes to reach a verdict of "guilty."
Usage Tips: verdict is often the object of the verbs reach or arrive at.
witness (v.)
to see something, especially a crime, happen -(attest genuineness of) เป็นพยานยืนยัน (ลายเซ็น, เอกสาร, ความถูกต้อง)
Ex: After witness + the car theft, Rodney called the police.
apprehend (v.)
to capture; understand or perceive - (perceive) ตระหนักถึง, เข้าใจ (ความจริง) ; (understand) เข้าใจ (ความหมาย) ; ได้ยิน (เสียง, คำพูด)
Ex: The police apprehend + the robbery suspect as he tried to get on a bus to Chicago.
ascertain (v.)
to make sure of - สืบหาข้อเท็จจริง, สืบให้รู้แน่ (ข้อเท็จจริง, ข้อมูล)
Ex: The police failed to ascertain that the man they arrested was the Gregory Brown they were really looking for.
Usage Tips: ascertain is often followed by a that clause.
bureaucratic (adj.)
related to a large organization with a lot of complicated procedures
Ex: Before I could speak with the chief, I had to go through a bureaucratic run around of identity checks and written requests.
Usage Tips: bureaucratic implies that something is inefficient and unnecessarily complicated.
condemn (v.)
to speak out against something in very strong terms; express complete disapproval of -(censure) ประณาม, วิพากษ์วิจารณ์ในทางไม่ดี
Ex: Religious radicals condemn + the government for allowing alcohol to be sold in restaurants.
evidence (n.)
something that makes the truth of a statement seem more likely
Ex: The most convincing evidence that Garner robbed the store was a videotape from surveillance cameras.
implicate (v.)
to suggest that someone was involved in a crime or other wrong behavior; convey (a meaning or intention) indirectly through what one says -(show to be involved) พัวพัน, เกี่ยวข้อง
Ex: No group claimed responsibility for the bombing, but the type of explosive used implicate + the Heartland Freedom Militia.
Usage Tips: implicate is often followed by in.
inquiry (n.)
an investigation; an act of asking for information
Ex: The FBI launched an inquiry into the relationship between organized crime and the trucking company.
intrusively (adv.)
in a way that brings an unwanted person or thing into someone else's affairs -อย่างก้าวก่าย
Ex: The new consultant from company headquarters appeared intrusively at meetings, staff parties, and other functions where he was not wanted.
seize (v.)
to take something against its owner's will -ยึด, จับ, ฉวย
Ex: Federal agents can seize private homes and other property possibly used in the production or sale of illegal drugs.
surveillance (n.)
a process of watching something or someone for a long time, usually because the person is suspected of something -การเฝ้ามอง, การตรวจตรา
Ex: Police surveillance of one suspected car thief resulted in the arrest of a whole gang of carjackers.
Usage Tips: surveillance is often followed by an of phrase.
analyze (v.)
to examine something by looking at its parts
Ex: Chemists analyze + the white powder and found it to be only a mixture of sugar and salt.
assail (v.)
to attack or criticize forcefully -โจมตีอย่างเต็มกำลัง, รุกราน
Ex: With DNA evidence from the crime scene, the defense lawyer assail + the police for falsely arresting his client.
contrary (adj.)
opposite -ซึ่งขัดแย้ง
Ex: contrary to most studies, Dr. Ito's work shows the world's climate is not getting warmer.
Usage Tips: Common phrases are contrary to and on the contrary.
hypothesize (v.)
to make a guess, the correctness of which will eventually be investigated systematically. -ทึกทักเอาว่า (= presume, suppose)
Ex: Scientists hypothesize that planets capable of supporting life exist beyond our solar system, but they have not yet seen any.
Usage Tips: hypothesize is often followed by a that clause.
impair (v.)
to make something less effective than usual -(damage) ทำให้ชำรุด, (weaken) ทำให้เสื่อม, อ่อนแอลง
Ex: The snow impair + John's ability to hear anyone's footsteps.
Usage Tips: The object of impair is often [someone's] ability to.
inference (n.)
a conclusion drawn from evidence - ข้อยุติ, ผลสรุป, ข้อวินิจฉัย
Ex: Inspector Dowd's inference that Ms. Miller was South African was based on her accent.
objectively (adv.)
based on unbiased standards, not on personal opinion -อย่างไม่มีอคติ, อย่างมีตัวตนจริง
Ex: I don't like Mr. Rowan, but looking objectively at his sales numbers, I saw that he was a very valuable employee.
suspicious (adj.)
believing that something is wrong; acting in a way that makes people believe you have done something wrong - (arousing suspicion) น่าสงสัย
Ex: The neighbors became suspicious of Jim when he bought a big new car and some fancy clothes.
Ex: Jim's suspicious purchases made his neighbors think he might be getting money illegally.
tolerate (v.)
to avoid getting upset about something -ทนทาน, รับได้
Ex: My math teacher tolerate+ a lot of talking in her class, but my history teacher tells us to be quiet.
versus (prep.)
against (esp. in sports and legal use) - ประชันกับ, เปรียบเทียบกับ
Ex: In the debate, it was pro-war senators versus antiwar senators.
Usage Tips: versus is often abbreviated as versus+ in sports contexts, or simply versus+ in legal contexts.
bribery (n.)
giving money or other gifts to a government official or other person in authority in order to get special privileges -การให้/รับสินบน
Ex: bribery of police officers is common in countries where police salaries are very low.
cynically (adv.)
disrespectfully; emphasizing the weaknesses of otherwise respected things - เหยียดหยาม
Ex: Employees of the Roadways Department cynically referred to their boss as "the banker" because he took so many bribes.
erode (v.)
to wear away and become smaller -(น้ำ, ลม, ฝน, น้ำแข็ง) กัดเซาะ; (สนิม, กรด) กัดกร่อนทำลาย
Ex: People's respect for the government erode+ as more officials were arrested for corruption.
Usage Tips: erode can be intransitive (the beach erode+) or transitive (the waves erode+ the beach).
evade (v.)
to get away from something that tries to catch you - หลบหลีก (การชกต่อย, ปัญหา, คำถาม, ความยากลำบากใดๆ) ; หลบเลี่ยง (การจ่ายภาษี, หน้าที่, ความรับผิดชอบฯลฯ) ; หลบหนี (ตำรวจ, คำสั่ง)
Ex: The robbery suspects tried to evade the police by fleeing to Canada.
grotesque (adj.)
Extremely unattractive, in a way that catches a lot of attention; comically or repulsively ugly or distorted -บิดเบี้ยว, พิกลพิการ
Ex: Spending million to redecorate the governor's house is a grotesque misuse of public money.
integrity (n.)
personal honesty and good character -(uprightness, honesty) ความซื่อตรง, ความซื่อสัตย์, บูรณภาพ (ร.บ.); (of business, venture) การมีหลักการ; (of style) มีลักษณะชัดเจน
Ex: We don't have a problem with our employees stealing from the store because we hire only people with a lot of integrity.
prevalent (adj.)
common; easy to find because it exists in great amounts -(existing) มีอยู่ทั่วไป, ที่แพร่หลาย
Ex: Distrust of elected officials was prevalent in our county because many of them were friends with certain candidates.
reform (v.)
to make big improvements (something, typically a social, political, or economic institution or practice) - (make better) ทำให้ดีขึ้น (นิสัย, พฤติกรรม) ; ปฏิรูป (องค์กร)
Ex: The new law was an attempt to reform the system of giving money to political candidates.
scandal (n.)
a case of wrongdoing that hurts someone's reputation - เรื่องอื้อฉาว (about, of เกี่ยวกับ)
Ex: In the Watergate scandal, some of the president's top advisors were revealed to be criminals.
unmask (v.)
reveal; expose something that is hidden - ถอดหน้ากากของ บางคน ออก; [figurative] เปิดโปง บางคน/กระชากหน้ากากของ บางคน
Ex: The Forge Trucking Company was eventually unmask+ as a front for organized crime.
abduction (n.)
kidnapping; the action or an instance of forcibly taking someone away against their will -การลักพาตัว
Ex: Pirates got many crew members by abduction, snatching unlucky citizens from seaport towns.
coerce (v.)
to force; to put pressure on someone to do something - บีบบังคับ
Ex: A criminal's confession is not usable in court if the police coerce him or her into giving it.
detain (v.)
to prevent someone, for a relatively short time, from going on their way - (keep in confinement) กักขัง,(take into confinement) จับตัว
Ex: The police detain+ at least 20 men for questioning, but charged none of them with a crime.
deviant (adj.)
in a style that is not normal and is offensive to many - ผิดปกติ, ผิดธรรมชาติ (โดยเฉพาะการปฏิบัติทางเพศ)
Ex: The artist based his reputation on creating deviant works of art that disgusted most of the public.
Usage Tips: deviant always implies a bad opinion of someone or something.
distort (v.)
to twist or misrepresent; to make something seem different from what it really is - ทำให้บิดเบี้ยว (หน้าตา, สิ่งของ) ; (โรค, รูปภาพ) ทำให้ผิดสัดส่วน; (กระจก) หลอกตา
Ex: If you hold a pencil in a glass of water, the water distort + the appearance of the pencil.
intentionally (adv.)
on purpose, not by accident -อย่างมีเจตจำนง, อย่างตั้งใจ
Ex: Danny intentionally lost his last golf ball because he was tired of playing.
piracy (n.)
stealing a ship or taking the ship's cargo; the unlawful copying of books, CDs, etc. - การปล้นเรือในทะเล, การปล้นของโจรสลัด; [figurative] การละเมิดลิขสิทธิ์, การลอกเลียนโดยมิได้รับอนุญาต
Ex: Modern-day piracy occurs mostly near groups of small, uninhabited islands where pirates can hide.
Usage Tips: The software company constantly battled piracy.
predicament (n.)
a difficult situation, one that is hard to get out of
Ex: College basketball stars face thepredicament of wanting to graduate but being tempted by high professional salaries.
smuggle (v.)
to illegally bring things into a country - ขนของเถื่อน, ลักลอบ
Ex: The pirate Ben Dewar smuggle guns to British and Indian fighters in North America.
villainy (n.)
Exceptional badness, as demonstrated by many serious evil deeds - ความเลวทราม, ความชั่วร้าย
Ex: Fred was not a natural criminal, but he learned all kinds of villainy while being jailed for a minor crime.
addictive (adj.)
making someone want it so much that the person feels ill without it - ที่ติด, เสพติด; [figurative colloquial] ที่ทำให้หลงใหล
Ex: Some drugs, like heroin or methamphetamines, are addictive to almost everyone who tries them.
cartel (n.)
a small group controlling a certain area of business - การรวมกลุ่มของผู้ผลิตเพื่อตั้งราคาให้สูงและควบคุมการตลาด
Ex: The world's major oil producers formed a cartel to control the price and supply of petroleum.
concentrated (adj.)
strong because large amounts are in a certain space - มุ่งมั่นเอาจริงเอาจัง, เจาะลึก; เข้มข้น
Ex: concentrated lemon juice is very sour, so I mix it with water when I make lemonade.
interdict (v.)
to keep something from reaching a certain place; prohibit or forbid - ห้าม (ทางกฎหมาย)
Ex: With faster patrol boats, the Coast Guard can more easily interdict drugs being smuggled by sea.
juxtapose (v.)
place next to one another - วางสองสิ่งเคียงข้างกัน
Ex: If you juxtapose these two similar flowers, you can see clear differences between them.
misconception (n.)
a mistaken belief; a view or opinion that is incorrect because it is based on faulty thinking or understanding
Ex: A common misconception about rabbits is that they are a kind of rodent.
modify (v.)
make small changes in order to get a certain result
Ex: People who live in high mountains often modify their car engines to run well in the thinner air.
potent (adj.)
powerful; having great power, influence, or effect
Ex: A very potent type of marijuana with surprisingly strong effects became available in Burrytown.
residual (adj.)
left behind after most of a thing has gone - ที่เหลือ, ที่ตกค้าง
Ex: In the airplane, agents found residual traces of heroin.
Usage Tips: residual is often followed by trace, amount, or some other word referring to "quantity".
subtly (adv.)
in a quiet, hard-to-notice way - อย่างนุ่มนวล, อย่างละเอียดอ่อน
Ex: By subtly changing the soft drink's formula, we improved its taste and made production cheaper.
ancestral (adj.)
relating to family members from earlier generations - เป็นของ/สืบทอดมาจากบรรพบุรุษ
Ex: Sweden is my ancestral homeland, from which my great-grandfather emigrated in 1922.
cohesion (n.)
ability to stay together as a unit - การทำงานร่วมกัน (= union)
Ex: Family cohesion is difficult if young people have to go far away to find work.
Usage Tips: cohesion can also be used to describe forces that keep materials or structures together.
descendant (n.)
a direct relative in a later generation (such as one's son, daughter, or grandchild)
Ex: Billy Sobieski claimed to be a descendant of Jan Sobieski, a former king of Poland.
Usage Tips: descendant is often followed by an of phrase.
inheritance (n.)
things passed down to you from your ancestors
Ex: My inheritance from my grandmother included her favorite necklace.
kin (n.)
relatives - กลุ่มคนที่มีความสัมพันธ์ฉันญาติ; ญาติ, ญาติพี่น้อง
Ex: Even though my uncle didn't really like me, he was kind to me because we were kin .
Usage Tips: A common phrase is next of kin , meaning "closest relative".
legitimate (adj.)
true and respectable; in the context of family, born of a mother and father who were married to each other - ถูกต้องตามกฎหมาย; (วิธีการ) ถูกต้อง
Ex: You can skip the meeting if you have a legitimate reason.
Ex: Harcourt had two legitimate children with his wife Hannah and one legitimate + son with a woman whom he met while traveling.
Usage Tips: The opposite of legitimate is legitimate +.
paternal (adj.)
relating to a father - ที่มีลักษณะของบิดา, ที่เหมือนบิดา
Ex: My mother's parents have both died, but my paternal grandparents are still alive.
Usage Tips: paternal may appear with paternal +, meaning "relating to a mother".
proximity (n.)
nearness - ความใกล้ (to กับ)
Ex: The house was comfortable, except for its proximity to a busy road.
Usage Tips: proximity can be followed by an of phrase or a to phrase.
sentiment (n.)
feelings; opinion based on feelings - อารมณ์, ความรู้สึกทางใจ
Ex: I share your sentiment + about air travel, but I disagree that cars are safer.
Usage Tips: sentiment + (the plural) is more common than sentiment.
sibling (n.)
brother or sister - (male) พี่/น้องชายที่มีพ่อแม่เดียวกัน; (female) พี่/น้องสาวที่มีพ่อแม่เดียวกัน
Ex: My sibling + and I got together to buy our parents a gift for their anniversary.
Usage Tips: sibling is often preceded by a possessive noun or pronoun.
affection (n.)
an emotional closeness or warmth - ความรัก, ความชื่นชอบเอ็นดู
Ex: I show affection for my girlfriend by spending time with her, not by spending money on her.
Usage Tips: affection is often followed by a for phrase.
associate (v.)
to regularly spend time together - เกี่ยวข้อง/พัวพันกับ บางคน
Ex: Carol doesn't associate with people who smoke.
Usage Tips: associate is often followed by a with phrase.
bond (n.)
a close connection - สิ่งผูกมัด, ข้อผูกมัด
Ex: Some researchers say that there is an especially strong emotional bond between twins.
Usage Tips: A between phrase, indicating the things that are connected, often follows bond.
clique (n.)
a small group of friends who are unfriendly to people outside the group - ก๊ก; กลุ่มคนที่รวมพวก
Ex: High-schoolers form clique + to gain security and acceptance.
Usage Tips: clique indicates a negative feeling toward a group.
confide (v.)
to tell very personal things; tell someone about a secret or private matter while trusting them not to repeat it to others
Ex: Teenagers are more willing to confide in a friend than in a parent.
Usage Tips: confide almost always followed by an in phrase.
exclusive (adj.)
keeping out all but a few people - ผูกขาด; เฉพาะสิ่ง; (เจ้าของ, การควบคุม) แต่ผู้เดียว;
Ex: The most exclusive universities accept only a small percentage of people who want to attend.
Usage Tips: exclusive can indicate a positive opinion, but in the context of friendship, it can mean "attached only to one person".
fluctuate (v.)
to change often, from one condition to another - เปลี่ยนแปลงอยู่เสมอ, ผันแปร, ขึ้นๆ ลงๆ
Ex: Earth's climate fluctuate + between warm periods and cold periods.
Usage Tips: fluctuate is usually followed by a between phrase (or by a from ... to structure).
in common (adv.)
as a shared characteristic
Ex: Billy and Heather have a lot in common; basketball, a love of pizza, and an interest in snakes.
Usage Tips: in common very often appears with the verb to have.
solidarity (n.)
standing together despite pressure to move apart - ความสามัคคีเป็นน้ำหนึ่งใจเดียวกัน
Ex: Many student groups declared solidarity with the Latino Student Association in their effort to get a Spanish-speaking principal.
Usage Tips: solidarity is usually used in political contexts.
willing (adj.)
agreeable and ready to do something - เต็มใจ, พร้อม
Ex: Because of their long friendship, Professor Gardner was willing to say a few words at Jones's birthday celebration.
Usage Tips: willing is almost always followed by a to + verb structure.
complex (adj.)
not simple; involving many parts that work together
Ex: A modern car engine is too complex for most car owners to repair by themselves.
despondent (adj.)
Extremely sad and without hope for the future - กลุ้มใจ, เสียใจ, หมดกำลังใจ
Ex: After his girlfriend left him, Johnson was despondent and wouldn't talk to anyone.
devotion (n.)
a willingness to keep supporting someone you admire
Ex: Grant showed great devotion to his wife, supporting her during her long illness.
Usage Tips: devotion is often followed by a to phrase.
dilemma (n.)
a difficult choice between two things (equally undesirable ones) - สถานการณ์ให้เลือก (ซึ่งทั้งสองทาง เลวร้ายพอๆ กัน)
Ex: I was caught in a dilemma between traveling by airplane and taking a train, which is slower but more comfortable.
engender (v.)
to bring into being; to cause to exist - ก่อให้เกิด
Ex: The government's warnings about terrorism engender + fear throughout the nation.
Usage Tips: engender is often followed by a noun for an emotion.
loyal (adj.)
faithful; giving or showing firm and constant support or allegiance to a person or institution - ซื่อสัตย์, ซึ่งปฏิบัติหน้าที่อย่างซื่อตรง, ถูกต้อง
Ex: Carter was loyal to his girlfriend and would not date anyone else.
Usage Tips: loyal is often followed by a to phrase.
passion (n.)
an extremely strong emotion, like love or anger
Ex: Debbie complained that there was no passion in her marriage.
proliferation (n.)
an increase in the number of something and in the number of places it can be found - การแพร่พันธุ์, การขยายพันธุ์; [Medicine] การขยายอย่างรวดเร็ว
Ex: The proliferation of fast-food restaurants has made it harder for Americans to eat healthy lunches.
Usage Tips: proliferation is very often followed by an of phrase.
reciprocity (n.)
doing as much for another as he or she has done for you; the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit - การกระทำซึ่งกันและกัน,การแลกเปลี่ยนสิทธิประโยชน์
Ex: Dan was giving a lot of attention to Kelly, but he felt no reciprocity in their relationship.
vanish (v.)
to disappear suddenly - อันตรธาน, หายวับไป
Ex: When the sun came out, last night's light snowfall vanish +.
antipathy (n.)
a strong, long-lasting negative feeling -ความเกลียดชัง, ความเป็นปรปักษ์
Ex: My antipathy toward telemarketers is so strong that I am often rude to them.
Usage Tips: antipathy is often followed by a toward phrase.
arrogantly (adv.)
in a way that shows a high opinion of oneself and a low opinion of others - อย่างหยิ่งยะโส; (presumptuously) อย่างบังอาจ
Ex: Jenny told us about her party only one day in advance, arrogantly thinking we had nothing else to do.
berate (v.)
to say insulting and disrespectful things -ดุด่า, ตำหนิ
Ex: The teacher lost his job because he cruelly berate + students who made mistakes.
Usage Tips: You can only berate someone directly, only when he or she can hear you.
contemptuous (n.)
having no respect -ดูถูก, เหยียดหยาม, หยิ่งยโส
Ex: Most scientists are contemptuous of reports that aliens from outer space have landed on the Earth.
Usage Tips: A very common structure is be contemptuous of.
despise (v.)
hate very much - เหยียดหยาม, ดูถูก
Ex: Tom grew to despise his greedy and unfriendly boss.
humiliation (n.)
an event that causes someone to feel that she or he has lost the respect of others - การลบหลู่, การดูหมิ่น, การเหยียดหยาม
Ex: Losing the chess tournament was a great humiliation for Marie, and she never played chess again.
obnoxious (adj.)
bothersome; doing small things that others don't like - น่ารังเกียจ, น่าขยะแขยง
Ex: My obnoxious neighbor keeps talking to me while I'm trying to read in my backyard.
shame (n.)
dishonor because one has done something wrong - ความละอายใจ
Ex: Feeling deep shame because of their son's crimes, the Ford family moved to a different town.
Usage Tips: shame is often followed by an of or about phrase.
stigmatize (v.)
to mark with a visible feature that makes other people think, perhaps incorrectly, that someone or something is wrong; describe or regard as worthy of disgrace or great disapproval - ทำให้เสื่อมเสียชื่อเสียง (= defame, denounce, discredit)
Ex: Cadbury's beard and tattoos stigmatize him as a bad match for Wall Street, so he couldn't find work as a financial analyst.
vitriolic (adj.)
showing an extreme, hateful anger- (คำพูด) รุนแรง, ถากถาง, ที่เจ็บปวด
Ex: The mayor's vitriolic attacks against the city council only made him sound unreasonable.
Usage Tips: The origin of vitriolic is vitriolic; a strong chemical that could cause painful burns.
adolescent (adj.)
characteristic of a teenager; not fully grown up - ของวัยรุ่น, ช่วงวัยรุ่น
Ex: In policy meetings, George refuses to reason with anyone and just scowls in an adolescent way.
cause (n.)
a political or social goal that one believes is right and works to achieve
Ex: Our river cleanup effort would be more effective if someone famous spoke out for the cause.
conflict (v.)
to fit so poorly together that the differences cause a problem - ขัดกัน, ค้านกัน
Ex: A teenager's need for security can conflict with his desire for independence from his family.
delinquency (n.)
serious misbehavior; not doing what one should do; minor crime, esp. that committed by young people - การก่ออาชญากรรม,การกระทำความผิด
Ex: Because of his laziness and delinquency, Lefty was an unreliable friend.
Usage Tips: A common combination is juvenile delinquency, meaning "criminal behavior by a teenager".
fringe (n.)
edge; in social contexts, parts of society that look or act very different from most people - ขอบที่ไม่เรียบและไม่แข็งมาก
Ex: Punk music got its start at the fringe of London's rock music culture.
Usage Tips: fringe implies an edge that is uneven and not very solid.
hedonistic (adj.)
Excessively interested in seeking pleasure - สนใจมากเกินไปในการแสวงหาความสุข
Ex: Suddenly wealthy, Allen fell into a hedonistic life of parties, expensive dinners, and heavy drinking.
Usage Tips: hedonistic usually implies that the pleasures are wrong.
hypocritically (adv.)
in a way that accuses other people of weaknesses that the speaker also possesses - หลอกลวง, แกล้งทำ
Ex: Henry spent on a new suit and then hypocritically accused me of spending too much on clothes.
manipulation (n.)
quietly moving or influencing people or things in order to get what you want - การจัดการโดยใช้เล่ห์เหลี่ยม;
Ex: Bob's manipulation of the boss's feelings led to his promotion.
rebel (v.)
To go against an established system or authority - ก่อการกบฏ, ขัดขืน, ต่อต้าน
Ex: The people of Ghurdia rebel against the dictator and set up a new government.
Usage Tips: rebel works well in political contexts and in contexts of personal relationships.
status quo (n.)
the systems and conditions that exist now - สถานภาพปัจจุบัน
Ex: Let's just maintain the status quo until we can think of a better way.
abstract (adj.)
not concrete and realistic; not obviously related to every-day experience
Ex: abstract painting became popular partly because early photography was very realistic.
context (n.)
a larger environment that something fits into - บริบท
Ex: In thecontext of Soviet Russia, public art had to be about the triumph of communism and its leaders.
Usage Tips: The preposition in often comes before context, and an of phrase often comes after it.
depict (v.)
to show in pictures - แสดงด้วยภาพวาด, บรรยาย
Ex: Michelangelo's painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel depictnine scenes from the Bible.
dimension (n.)
a direction or surface along which something can be measured; an aspect - มิติ; (measurement) ขนาด
Ex: The three dimension of physical objects are length, width, and depth.
Ex: One dimension of the problem is their long history of competition.
esthetically (adv.)
in a way that relates to beauty or appearance - เกี่ยวกับความงาม
Ex: The outside of the office building is esthetically pleasing, but the inside is dark and unpleasant.
Usage Tips: esthetically is often spelled with an "a" at the beginning: aesthetically.
intrinsic (adj.)
being part of the basic nature of something - มีอยู่ภายใน, มีอยู่ในตัว; (essential) คุณสมบัติจำเป็น; [Philosophy] อันเป็นเนื้อแท้
Ex: Frequent elections are intrinsic to a democratic system.
perspective (n.)
a way of seeing from a particular location; a way of thinking about something
Ex: From my perspective, the entire town can be seen through a set of large windows.
Ex: They held different perspective n how to care for their aging parents.
portrayal (n.)
a description or drawing that reflects a certain point of view - การบรรยาย; (esp. of person) การบรรยายของบุคคล
Ex: Most portrayal of Abraham Lincoln emphasize his sense of humor and his honesty.
Usage Tips: portrayal is often followed by an of phrase to indicate what is being described.
realism (n.)
a technique that tries to picture something as it really looks
Ex: realism was popular among seventeenth-century Flemish painters like Rembrandt van Rijn.
spectrum (n.)
a range of different things, usually colors
Ex: Bart's colorful designs include every color of the spectrum , from deep blue to vibrant red.
Usage Tips: The phrase the spectrum frequently means "the colors that the human eye can see".
advent (n.)
coming; arrival; the arrival of a notable person, thing, or event - ก่อนที่เริ่มมีใช้, ก่อนที่จะมา
Ex: The advent of the automobile greatly increased the demand for petroleum.
Usage Tips: advent is usually followed by an of phrase.
ambiguous (adj.)
having more than one possible meaning
Ex: The sentence It's hard to say is ambiguous, with different meanings in different contexts.
connotation (n.)
a meaning implied, not stated directly - ความหมายแฝงของคำ
Ex: When my boss says, "Thank you", the connotation is that she's done talking and I should leave.
decipher (v.)
to figure out the meaning, even though it is written in a code or an unknown language
Ex: The Rosetta Stone helped archaeologists decipher ancient Egyptian writing.
Usage Tips: A decipher + is a code or puzzle; decipher means "solve a puzzle written in code".
denote (v.)
to mean something clearly and directly - บ่งบอก, ชี้
Ex: An "X" next to a name on this list denote + a person who has been chosen for the soccer team.
illiterate (adj.)
unable to read - ไม่รู้หนังสือ, อ่านไม่ออกเขียนไม่ได้, ไม่มีการศึกษา
Ex: In many villages nearly everyone was illiterate and unschooled, and the few who could read held great power.
ingenious (adj.)
very clever and imaginative
Ex: Ann thought up an ingenious way to keep other people from accidentally taking her pens.
inscription (n.)
something written into a piece of rock or metal - ข้อความที่จารึก, อักษรที่จารึก
Ex: The inscription on my ring says "August 1," because that was the day of our wedding.
phonetic (adj.)
related to the sounds in a language - เกี่ยวกับการออกเสียงพูด
Ex: Children learning to write often make up phonetic spellings, based on the way a word sounds.
symbolic (adj.)
acting as a sign for some other thing or idea
Ex: Since the 1970s, yellow ribbons have been symbolic of hope that someone will return from a dangerous situation.
Usage Tips: symbolic is often followed by an of phrase indicating the meaning of a symbolic +.
amateurish (adj.)
not good enough to be the work of professionals
Ex: Whoever painted this room did an amateurish job, with all sorts of uneven edges.
cast (n.)
the group of actors in a play, movie, television show, etc. - รายนามผู้แสดง
Ex: Some viewers mistakenly start thinking that a TV show's cast members are really the characters they play.
Usage Tips: In U.S. English, cast is singular. In some other varieties of English it is plural.
charismatic (adj.)
Extremely attractive and charming
Ex: Because of the sparkle in his eye and his confident style, John F. Kennedy was a charismatic leader.
gala (adj.)
Expensive, elaborately arranged, and full of celebration - งานรื่นเริงในโอกาสพิเศษ, งานรื่นเริงหรูหรา
Ex: A college graduation party should be a gala affair, not a backyard barbecue.
Usage Tips: gala is somewhat old-fashioned, far more common in print than in speech.
hilarious (adj.)
very funny
Ex: In my opinion, the most hilarious character on television was Basil Fawlty.
improvisation (n.)
inventing a solution to an unexpected problem - สิ่งที่ทำขึ้นอย่างทันทีทันควัน
Ex: Boy Scouts take pride in their improvisation when faced with trouble during a camping trip.
incompetent (adj.)
unskilled; lacking the ability to perform a task
Ex: Because we hired an incompetent builder to replace our roof, we now have leaks everywhere.
Usage Tips: Usually, incompetent implies that someone tries to do something but fails.
medium (n.)
a channel or way for a meaning to be expressed
Ex: Watercolor art is often considered childish, but some artists have achieved great things working in that medium.
Usage Tips: The plural of medium is medium +.
skit (n.)
a short, informal play - ละครล้อเลียนชีวิตจริงสั้นๆ
Ex: Marnie and Chris spent a long time practicing their skit for the school show.
zeal (n.)
enthusiasm; a deep determination to do well - ความตั้งใจจริง, ความมุ่งมั่น
Ex: Unfortunately, Tom's zeal to become a rock star distracted him from his studies.
Usage Tips: zeal is often followed by to plus a verb or by a for phrase.
bulk (n.)
largeness and a heavy appearance
Ex: The bulk of Kevin's athletic body was too great for one small chair, so he sat on a bench.
capricious (adj.)
moving unpredictably from one thing to another - ที่เปลี่ยนใจง่าย, ไม่เสมอต้นเสมอปลาย;
Ex: Your college studies will go on too long if you make capricious jumps from one major to another.
Usage Tips: capricious comes from a Latin word meaning "goat"and implies a motion like the jumping of a goat.
cumbersome (adj.)
difficult to wear or carry because of weight or shape - รุ่มร่าม; เกะกะกีดขวาง; พะรุงพะรัง
Ex: To make it to the top of the mountain before dark, the hikers dumped their cumbersome tent.
exotic (adj.)
interesting or unusual because of coming from a faraway place - นำมาจากต่างถิ่นหรือต่างประเทศ
Ex: I walked into the restaurant and smelled the exotic aromas of Malaysian spices.
inhibit (v.)
to discourage or to slow down - ขัดขวาง, ยับยั้ง
Ex: This lotion will inhibit the itching caused by mosquito bites.
minimum (n.)
the smallest possible amount or level
Ex: The minimum for being accepted to Cavill University is a score of 60 on the test.
striking (adj.)
very noticeable; easily attracting attention - ดึงดูดความสนใจ, สะดุดตา
Ex: Gordon had a striking new attitude after he learned self-discipline at the army academy.
Usage Tips: striking comes from a verb that means "to hit".
trend (n.)
a movement in one direction or a widespread change in fashion - แนวโน้ม, สมัยนิยม
Ex: Thetrend among some young men is to wear their caps with the bill off to one side.
vanity (n.)
an excessive concern for one's appearance; excessive pride in or admiration of one's own appearance or achievements - ความภูมิใจ, ความทะนง
Ex: Mark's vanity led him to spend far too much money on haircuts and new clothes.
vulnerable (adj.)
Exposed to possible harm
Ex: Babies and very old people are especially vulnerable to the new disease.
Usage Tips: vulnerable is often followed by a to phrase.