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18 Cards in this Set
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electron configuration

describes the arrangement of electrons in an atom


valence electrons

the outermost shell electrons, involved in chemical reactions


quantum mechanical atom

developed Bohr's model into a model where electrons are in specific locations. Wave properties of electrons conflict with specific location.


Schrodinger

developed an equation that took waveparticle duality into account.


Schrodinger's equation

determines the probability of finding an electron in a specific region in space. Uses quantum numbers to predict energy.


types of quantum numbers

principle energy levels (n=1,2,3...)
sublevels defining wave function (s, p, d, f) atomic orbitals defining position in space spin, 1/2 or +1/2 (paired in an orbital) 

Schrodinger's cat

our measurement of a particle depends on our intention, not an inherent property of the particle


principle energy level

n= 1, 2, 3...
the larger n is, the higher the energy level and farther away from the nucleus. 

What is the electron capacity of a principle energy level

2(n)^2


sublevel

number of sublevels equal to n
a set of energy equal orbitals within a principle energy level. Subshells increase in energy (s<p<d<f) 

orbital

a specific region of a sublevel containing a maximum of 2 electrons. Named by sublevel and principle energy level (1s, 2s, 3s, 2p, etc.)


orbital shapes

s is spherical
p is dumbbell d is clover shaped f is a flower, going 3 dimensions 

subshells and the number of their orbitals

s, 1 orbital
p, 3 orbitals d, 5 orbitals f, 7 orbitals 

electron configuration

the arrangement of electrons in atomic orbitals


Aufbau principle

"building up" principle. Electrons fill the lowest level first.


Pauli Exclusion principle

no two electrons can have the same 4 quantum numbers in an orbital. Two electrons must have the opposite spin from each other.


Hund's rule

each orbital in a subshell is filled half way before it is filled all the way.


Rules for writing electron configurations

obtain the total number of electrons in an atom from the atomic number.
electrons in atoms occupy the lowest energy orbitals first each principle energy level n contains only n sublevels the s sublevel has 1 orbital, p has 3, d has 5, f has 7 no more than 2 electrons per orbital 