Theories of Motivation
Introduction into motivation
In this essay the writer is going to explore the concept of motivation, this is hopefully going to be achieved through exploration of the complex and variable nature of needs and expectations. Formal and informal theories of motivation will be discussed, focussing on the former. Mainly but this will involve mainly the formal theories because these are the ones that content and process theories fall under. Content and process theories of motivation will be evaluated with particular emphasis on the links between motivation and leadership. The writer will compare the various content theories and process theories. Finally writer also aims
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There are two main overall categories of theories of motivation these are formal and informal theories of motivation informal theories are based on assumptions of managers these are the assumptions on what motivates staff. These are theory X and theory Y types of management the basis of these is that theory X managers believe staff are not motivated enough and dislike work and responsibility, theory Y managers believe the opposite that staff are motivated and seek responsibility. The other assumption-based theory is the social assumptions. The Fredrick Taylor theory of motivation also falls under the assumption based theories it is assumed that by Taylor money is the only motivator and the last main assumption based theory was the hawthorn studies about the impact of social relations on motivation. The Hawthorne studies are very important because Fredrick Herzberg (1969) who did a formal theory to motivation based some of his ideas from the Hawthorne studies.
The formal theories of motivation
The formal theories of motivation fall under three main headings these are content theories, process theories and reinforcement theories.