Essay about The Republic by Plato

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The Republic began in 508 BC and lasted for 483 years. The office of the Praetor came about in 367 BC. The functions of the praetor were to aid the civil law, done through the grant of rights of actions for the enforcement of civil claims and to help the consuls in the day-to-day administration of justice. In 242 BC, thirty years later, another praetor was added, thus there were two praetors. The praetor urbanus had jurisdiction to decide cases and administer justice among Roman citizens whilst the praetor peregrinus had to take care of cases between citizens and foreigners, and foreigners amongst themselves. Nonetheless the main cases were those between peregrines. Also in the lex Papiria de sacramentis we find “qui inter
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This power was conferred upon them as early as from the end of the 3rd century. But it can be said, that even before the 3rd century, the praetor started to change the law by a praetorian actio in factum. These edicts were issued by the praetor at the beginning of his year in the office. This provided certainty for the Roman citizens and it showed the principles which the current praetor was going to follow. This edict was later called perpetual edict or edictum perpetuum. This edict was considered to be valid for the entire year of the praetor’s magistracy. Later on, it was possible for the praetor to issue certain edicts throughout his magistracy, but only if the necessity arose.
It was also possible for new praetors to introduce certain edicta which they thought were necessarily and which their predecessor had left out. But it became practice for the praetor to accept his predecessor’s edicts and thus only introducing certain amendments and new provisions.
W. W Buckland refers to the edict of the praetor as the “most potent instrument of law reform in the last century of the Republic” . By adopting the edicts of the previous praetor, the new praetor would be lock-stock and barrel carrying laws from one year to another and developing the ius honorarium.
As from the second century, edicts were being promulgated which modified the ius civile. This as Alan Watson says “it

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