The Major Obstacles to the Italian Movements in the Period 1815-70

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The Major Obstacles to the Italian Movements in the Period 1815-70

Since the Vienna Settlement of 1815 overlooked the growth of nationalism in Italy, the Italians started to unify themselves. Although they faced many obstacles both internally and externally, these obstacles were overcome by 1870. The Risorgimento, which means a revival glory and prestige of the old days, was a success.

Internally, the unification movement faced the problem of localism. The Vienna Settlement made localism a prevailing idea after 1815. Italy was divided into eight separate states and each of them had their own system of government and interests. There had been little operation between them. The local rulers
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After 1848 Revolution, the revolutionaries successfully turned from Romanticism to Realpolitik, which means pragmatic policies. The utter failure of the Revolution showed that unification could never be achieved without careful planning and preparation. They now understand that internal strength and foreign aid was necessary for unification. Thus Cavour led Piedmont to join the Crimean War in 1854-56 in order to gain British and French aid. This helped to facilitate the movement.

Lack of leadership and military strength were great hindrance to the unification movement. There was no state leadership before 1848 Revolution and revolts were on a parochial basis. Evidence was shown in the sparsity of revolts in 1820s and 30s. However, after the Revolution, great leader like Emmanuel II, Cavour and Garibaldi emerged. Victor Emmanuel II retained the constitution granted by his father, thus made Piedmont the most liberal state in Italy. He was also credited for appointing Cavour as the Prime Minister. Cavour was an outstanding diplomat; he carried out intense reforms to strengthen Piedmont and obtained the powers’ consent before adding new Italian states to Piedmont. For example, he secured French neutrality by signing the Treaty o Turin before the plebiscite of the three Duchies. By doing so, he carefully avoided foreign

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