The importance of academy-industry interaction for the Brazilian immature innovation system: evidences from a comprehensive data base

1968 Words 8 Pages
1. Introduction
The concept of national systems of innovation (Freeman, 1988; Nelson, 1993) is the starting point the present investigation. It is a complex institutional setting that characterizes modern capitalist economies, involving a diversity of actors – firms with and without R&D departments, universities, research institutes, government, financial agencies, legal framework – and a division of labor among them. Within such institutional setting, the relationships required to exchange and combine knowledge and experience between the actors are a crucial factor differentiating developed and non-developed NSIs (Lundvall, 2003). Among them, those between firms, universities and research institutes stand out as they work in a
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This still is a controversial issue among academics (see Arza, 2010 in this Special Issue). On the other hand, besides being the “institutions and actors that affect the creation, development, and diffusion of innovation” (Mowery and Sampat, 2005), the role of PROs varies according to socioeconomic development. In immature systems (Albuquerque, 1999) academic institutions play important roles for firms and governments since the early stages of development, no matter how primitive those institutions may be. They produce solutions to local problems and emerging demands, act as “antennas” for local firms to access knowledge and new technologies from more developed countries, and help local firms to build the in-house research competencies they still lack (Suzigan, Rapini & Albuquerque, 2009). More recently, as global market pressures push firms in developing countries to improve their innovative capacity, academy-industry interactions are ways of assessing academic resources that reduce the time needed to enter a better international division of labor without forgoing traditional functions and social needs.
This role of immature NSIs does not reproduce the characteristics of those from the central economies in terms of size and quality of university education and research nor firms’ involvement with R&D activities (Rappini et al, 2009). Neither are their institutions engaged into

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