Death to the Old or Death to the Young?
Since Dolly the cloned sheep was born on February 24, 1997, stem cell research in the United States has been a widely debated topic, especially after President Bush’s August 9, 2001 speech, allowing federal funding for limited stem cell research. Stem cells, obtained from an embryo, are cells that have not developed to the stage in which they are specified. Thus, a stem cell can develop into any type of cell in the adult human body. In the process of obtaining stem cells from week-old embryos, the embryos are destroyed. Many scientists believe that stem cell research holds the key to finding cures for diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease.
The issue is
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Conservatives combine definition and cause and effect to support their argument. Believing that life begins at conception they argue that extracting stem cells results in killing embryos, that this is wrong, and that allowing stem cell research will cause further degradation of society. Thus they strongly oppose federal funding for stem cell research. Also using definition and cause and effect, liberals argue that a week-old embryo is not yet a person, that using it in research is not murder, and that performing stem cell research will save thousands of lives. Thus, they favor federal funding and legalization of stem cell research. However, many logical arguments on both sides are backed by their personal beliefs, and thus to convince a person of either political view is difficult using their logic alone. Pathos is used extensively by both liberals and conservatives to persuade people to their belief because this is a highly emotional issue. Pathos can be seen in Conservatives’ articles through strong words, analogies between stem cell research and horrible historical events, and ties between the average human and an embryo. Liberals use pathos through strong words, humor, and stories of those who could be cured by stem cell research. Both the liberal and conservative sides use a small amount of ethos to strengthen their arguments made by logos and pathos. For conservatives, several religious