Essay on A Comprehensive Review of Periodontitis

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Periodontitis (less commonly known as pyorrhea) is a cluster of diseases that affect the tissues that support and surround teeth. These tissues are collectively known as the periodontium. The disease is caused by microbes that grow on the tooth surface. another feature of the disease is the fact that once these microbes establish themselves, the immune response by the body tends to be over-aggressive, which can lead to tissue loss and other problems. Typically this disease is diagnosed using a multi-faceted approach, which includes using hand instruments to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and taking X-ray films of the patients mouth to determine bone loss. The most recent classification system for periodontal diseases was …show more content…
Lingual is towards the tongue side, where as buccal (or sometime labial or facial) is towards the cheek and outside of the teeth. 6 measurements are taken when diagnosing the disease. Three (mesio,mid, and distal) are taken on the buccal surface, and three more (mesio, mid, and distal) are taken on the lingual surface. These measurements determine how much periodontal ligament (which attach the tooth and suspend it in the bone) has been lost3. attachment of less than 2mm is considered mild, and greater than 5mm lost is considered severe. Any amount of loss between the 2 is considered moderate. A number of symptoms present in the mouth of a patient who suffers from periodontitis, included red swollen gums, halitosis, gingival recession (apparent lengthening of teeth due to gum loss) and occasionally loose teeth. However, more interestingly are the correlations between periodontitis and symptoms occurring in other areas of the body besides the mouth. A correlation between inflammation in other parts of the body and periodontitis have been found in multiple studies4,5. This link has been marked by raised levels of interleukin-6 and C protein. Periodontitis has also been shown to correlate with a higher prevalence of stroke6 and atherosclerosis7,8. Since periodontitis can cause inflammation in other parts of the body, individuals who suffer from the disease and have diabetes can have trouble regulating blood-glucose levels because of the

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