A mutation can simply be put as abrupt change in the genotype of an organism that is not the result of recombination. A gene mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Mutations range in size from a single DNA building block (DNA base) to a large segment of a chromosome. Gene mutations occur in two ways: they can be inherited from a parent or acquired during a person's lifetime. Mutations that are passed from parent to child are called hereditary mutations or germ line mutations (because they are present in the egg and sperm cells, which are also called germ cells). This type of mutation is present throughout a person's life in virtually every cell in the body. Mutations that occur only in an egg or sperm
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The deficiency of oxygen in the blood causes hemoglobin S to crystallize, distorting the red blood cells into a sickle shape, making them fragile and easily destroyed, leading to anemia. The "sickled" blood cells then are unable to squeeze through the smaller blood vessels (arterioles and capillaries). Because people with sickle cell anemia don't have enough normal red blood cells, they get tired more easily. They also get infections more often than other kids do. They may not grow as fast or feel as hungry as people with normal blood cells. Other problems linked with Sickle Cell Anemia include stroke, bone pain, kidney damage and breathing problems. The recurrent pain caused by the disease can interfere with many aspects of the patients' lives including education, employment, and psychosocial development.
Most people with sickle cell anemia take penicillin, a drug that helps prevent infections. A doctor may also prescribe a vitamin supplement called folic acid. Folic acid helps the body make new red blood cells. However others Sometimes kids with sickle cell anemia need blood transfusions in order to put healthy blood cells right into the patients body. A blood transfusion raises the amount of normal hemoglobin in the blood. It also decreases the chances that blockage, or crisis, will happen.
A mutagen is a natural or human-made agent (physical or chemical) which