Ways Of Knowing: Quantitative, Qualitative And Mixed Methods

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Ways of Knowing
According to Creswell (2013),There are three types of research design: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. Although it is hard to separate the first two, often a research study tends to be more quantitative than qualitative or vice versa. Mixed methods are somewhere in the middle, a combination of both qualitative and quantitative methods. In detail: qualitative research is about exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem “qualitative researchers have underscored the importance of not only understanding the beliefs and theories that inform our research but also actively writing about them in our reports and studies” (Creswell, 2013, p. 15) . Quantitative research
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(C) Advocacy/Participatory view: We can also call this emancipatory as the research aims not only to understand but also change the research setting by changing the conditions of the participants. The research agenda thus includes specific concerns such as empowerment, inequality, oppression, domination, suppression, and alienation. From this perspective, the participants may design the research, such as questions, collect data, analyze information. This view aims to be a voice to the marginalized in the society, by giving the opportunity to raise the concerns relevant to their lives, rather than an outside researcher dictating the concerns. (D) Pragmatic view: As the name suggests, pragmatism is concerned with selecting most appropriate strategy depending on the nature of the research area, this enables the research a freedom of choice, and focuses the attention onto “how” and “why.” Strategies of Inquiry or Research Methodologies: What are the procedures for research? Quantitative Strategies: These are the studies where experimental designs or correlational analysis are the research procedures. For instance, surveys provide mathematical descriptions of living conditions, trends, opinions, attitudes using a sample from a …show more content…
Usually there are two groups: one is subject to the treatment, “treatment group”, the other group is called “control group.” Qualitative Strategies: Rather than relying on numerical representations of a particular research topic, qualitative strategies are about “interpretation” of what is being observed. According to Stake (2010), qualitative research is interpretive. It keys on the meanings of human affairs as seen from different views. Its researchers are comfortable with multiple meanings. Some examples of qualitative research strategy are as following: ethnography (being a participant observer in a culture), grounded theory (where the strategy is grounded in the views of participants), case studies (where a program, a specific event is explored in depth), and narrative research (where the participants provide stories about their

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