Water Fluoridation Essay

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Water fluoridation is a process of adding fluoride to public water until a desired level of fluoride in the water is reached. It has been used as a public health measure to reduce tooth decay and it is important for oral health especially the teeth. Natural water contains a small amount of fluoride but it is limited and insufficient to provide a significant change in the improvement of oral health. Water fluoridation adds fluoride to public water and it is adjusted to between 0.7 - 1.0 parts per million in drinking water which is deemed the most effective and efficient way of preventing dental caries (tooth decay).

Public health authorities around the world such as World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and
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With the presence of fluoride ion in the saliva and dental plaque, demineralization of enamel is halted and remineralization of the hard tissue is promoted especially in early carious lesions. Tooth decay is not a stagnant process. It is a dynamic and ever-moving process which can be characterized by mineral exchange, from the tooth to the environment surrounding the tooth which is demineralization, and from the surrounding environment to the tooth which is remineralization. Bacteria in our mouth breaks down carbohydrate or sugar from our food intake into acid. The acid in the saliva will then react with the tooth and this will cause the minerals to be leached out from the tooth in their ionic form which is known as demineralization. Demineralization will cause that spot on the tooth to become 'soft ' and can be cavitated easily and by then it will be difficult to treat tooth decay and we have to resort to filing the tooth. The key to prevent tooth decay from happening is to reduce mineral transfer out of the tooth during acid attacks and to promote mineral transfer instead. A high amount of fluoride ions in the saliva will promote the absorption of fluoride into the tooth structure and fluoride crystals will be formed. Once the fluoride crystals are formed, it will be difficult for the crystals to be broken down by acid and thus making the tooth structure stronger than before and more resistant to acid …show more content…
One of the reasons is that fluoride has antibacterial properties. However, tooth decay is not the only problem which arises due to the presence of bacteria. Bacteria within the oral environment can also cause gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums in which the gums are swollen, red, tender and bleed easily. However, periodontitis is a gum disease on a more severe level. It is a serious infection which damages the tissues surrounding the tooth. The tissues which surround the tooth are the gum, the bone, the outer layer of hard tissue of the root of the toth and the ligaments which hold the tooth within its socket. In periodontitis, the gum tissues separate from the tooth and the bone holding the tooth is destroyed. Periodontitis is characterized by red and bleeding gums, deep valleys in between the tooth and the adjacent gum and may or may not present with loose teeth and the visibility of the root of the tooth. If left untreated, periodontal disease can lead to tooth

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