Type 1 Diabetes : An Autoimmune Condition Essay example

814 Words Feb 24th, 2016 4 Pages
Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune condition that affects roughly 5-10% of all diabetics around the world. More commonly known as juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes, this disease can wreak havoc on a person’s immune system, and can lead to many life-changing events. Most type 1 diabetics are diagnosed under the age of 30, but it is becoming more common to find adults being diagnosed over the age of 30. Many attribute the development of type 1 diabetes to genetics, and environmental triggers. Although this disease can cause damage to various systems within the body, it is a very manageable and treatable disease that allows for a prolonged life of a type 1 diabetic.

Pathophysiology
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic, T cell mediated form of diabetes that results from a cellular-mediated autoimmune destruction of the body’s beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas (Van Belle, Coppieters & Von Herrath, 2011). The beta cells are destroyed to the point of significantly reducing and eventually eliminating insulin production. Typically 90-95% of beta cells are lost in a type 1 diabetic, but diagnosis can occur when nearly two-thirds of islets lack insulin-producing cells. It has been shown that type 1 diabetes involves a selective loss of beta cells (Atkinson, Eisenbarth & Michels, 2014), and there has been evidence supporting the histopathological appearance of insulitis, as well as genetic association with the human leukocyte…

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