Essay about Timeline: Historical Development of Nursing Science

991 Words Oct 11th, 2011 4 Pages
Timeline: Historical Development of Nursing Science
Nursing science provides the basis for professional nursing practice. Nursing theories provide the critical thinking structures to direct the clinical decision- making process of professional nursing practice. The relationship between theory, research, and practice is circular in nature. As new knowledge and discoveries emerge in each of these realms, the cutting edge of the art and science of the discipline of nursing evolves.
(1860) Florence Nightingale:
• Florence Nightingale is recognized as the first nurse theorist. She described nursing as both an art and a science. She recommended adjusting the environment to improve the person’s health. Theory development began with
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(1965) Imogene King’s Goal Attainment Theory
• Nursing is a process of action, reaction, and interaction whereby nurse and client share information about their perception in the nursing situation. This theory has been used in most specialty areas, in designing curriculum for nursing programs and international nursing education. Her stand was for any social services profession to continually engage in research to discover new knowledge and improve practice (George,
J.B., 2011).
(1968) Dorothy Johnson’s Theory:
• Dorothy Johnson’s theory of nursing 1968 focuses on how the client adapts to illness and how actual or potential stress can affect the ability to adapt. The goal of nursing is to reduce stress so that the client can move more easily through recovery.

(1970) Martha Rogers:
• Roger’s theory is to maintain and promote health, prevent illness, and care for and

rehabilitate ill and disabled client through "humanistic science of nursing".
• Nursing is an art and science that is humanistic and humanitarian. It is directed toward the unitary human and is concerned with the nature and direction of human development. The goal of nurses is to participate in the process of change.
• Nursing interventions seek to promote harmonious interaction between persons and

their environment, strengthen the wholeness of the individual and redirect human and

environmental patterns or

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