Theory of Morality: Monism, Pluralism, Particularism Essay

1057 Words 5 Pages
When considering the theory of morality. There are many different views about the guidelines humans should follow in order to be a good human and live in a functional environment. Monism, pluralism, and particularism are three different ideas about how one should make decisions. Pluralism seems to be the most plausible in our society. Monism states that there is one principle of rightness. An example of this is utilitarianism. The utilitarian view considers the optional, obligatory and forbidden acts. Action X is forbidden if, and only if, x produces less than maximal utility. Action X is obligatory, if and only if, X maximizes utility. Action X is optional if X is one of several actions that maximizes utility. Utility measures amounts …show more content…
Because you have promised. This is considered a basic duty. This example would be considered a utilitarian view. What if you were in a situation where you would have to break a promise to meet someone for lunch in order to save a life? The maximum goodness would not come out of you keep the promise. Consequentialism does not consider different circumstances. Ross' system of basic prima facie duties include: previous acts, gratitude, justice, beneficence, self-improvement, and non-malefecence. Previous acts take into consideration fidelity of prior commitments and reparation, to compensate for wrong acts committed in the past. Gratitude repays the generousity of other human beings. Justice gives a balance in happiness. Beneficence, committing goodness. Self-improvement by making a better person, choosing better choices. Non-malefecence is to do no harm, no intention to do harm. intuitionism is the obvious way of choosing these duties. When making decisions, Ross believes a human must take into consideration prima facie duties and actual duties. Particularism states there are no principles of rightness. It has no general rules. Under the particular view, there is no non-moral property of an act that consistently contributes to that act being right or wrong. Qwith particularism, one cannot know whether an act is right or wrong simply by having one morally relevant property. Two terms explaining this view are atomism and holism. Atomism states that what makes an act

Related Documents