Theories Of Utilitarianism, Virtue Ethics, And Care Ethics

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A Moral Theory makes an action right and wrong. Utilitarianism(Mill), Deontology(Kant), Virtue Ethics( Aristotle), and Care Ethics (Held) are some of the moral theories introduced by ancient great philosophers. These principles or theories are used in resolving difficulties and making the moral decisions. Mill introduced an idea of Utilitarianism, the moral worth of an action based on its consequences. Immanuel Kant’s theory of Deontology is the moral worth of an action determined by the principle or law upon which action is based. Deontology is a better approach to morality than utilitarianism because an action is based on the principles, not consequences.
Deontology is also known as duty-based ethics. Immanuel Kant introduced an idea of Deontology to the
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Kant argues that duty is based solely on reason (Kant,81). Kant believes that the act of lying, murdering, robbery are the wrong action and we have a duty not to do these things. According to Kant, consequences are not what makes an act right, but the right action makes the act right. Also, our good motives or intentions will lead us to the good path without qualification. The Categorical Imperative is the supreme principle of morality. Kant said that the categorical imperative is an imperative that requires a person to never perform an act unless he or she can will that maxim or principle that motives actions could become a universal law (Kant, 81). Kant believes that human should be treated as ends never as a means. There are two types of Deontology - act deontology and rule deontology. Act Deontology is when no ethical rules to be followed when making an ethical decision. Rule Deontology is when there are rules to be followed while making the ethical decisions. Just like a coin Deontology has two sides- advantageous side and disadvantageous side. The benefit with Deontology is that it supports an action and intention to determine the moral worth of an action. The

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