Theories Of Sigmund Freud And Montessori's Theory Of Two Stages Of Development

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Every human life begins with infancy and every infant needs proper rearing. The way we grow and shape our young has varied throughout the centuries and there have been many theories on what is right and what is wrong. Every theory must have its theorist, and the three chosen for this paper are no different. The theories and theorists I have chosen are Sigmund Freud with his theory of psychosexual stages, Maria Montessori with her theory of the planes of development, and lastly, John Piaget with his theory of cognitive development.

Sigmund Freud traversed the depths of the human mind unlike anyone else in history. He was a pioneer of developmental psychology. Freud believed that if we explain our behaviors to others, we do not tell the full
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She thought that “As the needs of the child change at difference stages of development, so must the environment change, and the experiences within that environment.” (Paraphrasing Dr. Montessori) What helps a child during one stage may not be useful in another. Human propensities are observable at all ages, but show themselves in many different ways. Montessori’s theory of planes of development contains four planes, each lasting six years. According to this structure of development, the first three years of each plane contain the biggest changes, while the last three years are for the child’s stability. The first plane is from birth to age six, titled “infancy”. During the infancy plane, the child’s brain is referred to as the “Absorbent Mind”. The “Absorbent Mind” means that the child will not be conscious of her actions and reactions, and will not act based on choice or have a conscious memory of the events transpiring. The unconscious phase of the Absorbent Mind lasts from birth to age three. During the unconscious phase, the infant will explore their environment using all five senses and absorbing as much information as possible. The second half of the first plane, ages three to six, involve the conscious aspect of the Absorbent Mind. During this period, the child realises that they are learning, they become conscious of their thoughts and the fact that they are capable of choice. During these last three years, the child must do things by themselves and solidify the information and experiences compiled over the full six year

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