The Three Concepts In The Communist Manifesto By Karl Marx

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The Modern and Post-Modern periods seem to be closely connected with each other because the 20th century marks the time when the former ends and the latter begins (Hoffman, Hoffman, Robison, & Lawrence, 2005, p. 3). Nevertheless, political thoughts are still separated by space and time. They each have a take on how politics should work (and by extension, how life should be). Thus, it is essential to differentiate the concepts by discussing the trends and perspectives set by political thinkers from the two eras. Their views and ideas will be discussed in this paper in relation to the concepts of (a) State, (b) Civil Society and (c) Freedom, in order to subsequently identify the “break” between the two epochs.
MODERN – HEGEL, MARX AND MILL
The point of view that the individual is prior to the state (Courtney, 2012, p. 24) may be seen in this epoch through the discussion of the three concepts by Hegel, Marx and Mill. In Friedrich Hegel’s the
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At a time when the industrial revolution is at its peak or “the epoch of the bourgeoisie” (2002, p. 220) as he calls it, civil society is rife with the class struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat over political, economic and social power (Marx & Engels, 2002). Since the state is a bourgeois State due to its domination by the bourgeoisie/capitalists, there is an inequality due to private property. As Marx said, “…private property is already done away with for nine-tenths of the population; its existence for the few is solely due to its non-existence in the hands of those nine-tenths” (2002, p. 237). Only with the abolition of private property will there be a “‘complete emancipation of all human senses and qualities’” (Jones, 2002, p. 138) i.e. Freedom. Thus, freedom is equated with the emancipation of the proletariat through abolishing private property (Marx & Engels, 2002, p.

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