Essay on The Theory Of The Game Theory
Behavioral game theory has been used extensively in experimental research, focussing on altruism, fairness and cooperation (see Camerer, 2003). Game theory assumes that people behave rationally when making decisions and in order to maximise personal gain, people should behave selfishly when allocating resources. However, this is not always the case as people take the receiver’s payoffs into account, as well as their own (Fehr & Fischbacher, 2003). Game theory enables us to test simple predictions, identify predictors and moderators of prosocial behaviour (Benenson, Pascoe & Radmore, 2007; Cappelen, Nielsen, Sorensen, Tungodden, & Tyran, 2013). Attractiveness may be a predictor of how we distribute resources.
Many authors argue that the purpose of cooperative and generous behaviour is to attract mates, as these behaviours and traits appear to be sexually selectable (Miller, 2000; Roberts, 1998; Tessman, 1995; Zahavi, 1995). Being willing to share may signal commitment towards a partner (Haselton & Buss, 2000). This may be of more significance to females as they place a higher importance on a male’s ability to be able to gain and share resources, relating to the parental investment model (Trivers’, 1972; 1985) whereas males tend to focus on a female’s physical attractiveness (Buss, 1989).
The role of sex has been investigated in game theoretical research, predominantly reporting that females are more generous (Oswald, Clark & Kelly, 2004) and kinder (Conway,…