The Persian Wars were a series of conflicts involving the Persian Empire and many Greek city-states spanning from c.499-449 BCE. The conflict began around 499 BCE when Greek city-states in Anatolia, client states of the Persian Empire, rose in open rebellion against the Empire. Following the Persian Empire defeating the rebellion in 493 BCE, numerous conflicts would be fought between Persia and the Greek city-states until 449 BCE. The Greeks ―utilizing superior training, tactics, and Persian mistakes― were ultimately able to defeat the much larger Persian Empire. Greek superiority in the Persian Wars is best illustrated by three stages of the Wars: the first invasion of the Greek mainland, the second invasion of the Greek mainland, and the Greek counterattack into the Persian Empire (Delian Wars). Ultimately ending with the Peace of Callias in 449 BCE, the Greek states ended the Persian domination of the region.
First Invasion of Greek Mainland
Following the end of the Ionian Revolt, the Persian Empire sought to invade mainland Greece. Pagden writes that “Darius now began to gather a vast army from all the peoples who owed him allegiance.” Speaking to the prowess of the Persian Army, Peter Green writes “That Juggernaut, the Persian war-machine -- nothing so formidable had appeared since the collapse of the Assyrian empire.” The Persian Army, under General Mardonius, first moved in 492 BCE conquering Thrace and Macedon without much resistance but was delayed when Mardonius’ fleet was …show more content…
Greek strategy overcame the sheer size of the Persian Army; utilizing the terrain around them and their men, the Greeks experienced great success in places like Marathon, the Straits of Salamis, and Mycale. However, the Persian’s over reliance on the size of their forces and some crucial battlefield mistakes, like the order to assault at Plataea, greatly aided the Greeks in their