The Importance Of Land Use Management

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Prevention measures are aimed at minimizing the impact of a tsunami in terms of loss of life, primarily by reducing the density of occupancy in tsunami inundation zones, especially for tsunami run-up areas. As shown in Table 3, prevention measures mainly refer to land use management such as open land development regulations, planning and zoning, and open space preservation. For example, open space preservation refers to the maintenance or to the conversion of specific at-risk areas to parks or agriculture land.
Property protection measures such as acquisition, relocation, and rebuilding can also be used as mitigation measures in order to protect critical facilities (e.g., hospitals, Emergency Operation Centers [EOC], schools, and so on). Property
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Mitigation actions that can be undertaken in this category are the production of maps, indicating the tsunami inundation zone and the safest place where to evacuate, and public outreach activities informing different target categories of people/organizations of risks and protective actions. Examples of public education as a mitigation measure are the attempts to create a new disaster subculture (Velotti et al., 2013) and educating people to self-assess the danger and take action. The creation of a new disaster subculture in the case of tsunami relies on the Japanese concept of Tendenko, meaning “each for themselves” (Yamori, 2014). Tendenko teaches people mutual trust in the fact that everybody will attempt to gain safety; this approach saved many lives during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake/tsunami. Education proved to be meaningful in saving the lives of Japanese school children at Unosumai, Kaimaishi City, where the children were able to self-assess the safest location on the basis of the wave height and evacuated uphill rather than to the third floor of their school (Fraser, Leonard, Matsuo, & Murakami, 2012; Harding & Harding, 2011; Hein, 2014; Yamori, …show more content…
vertical elevation” (Velotti et al., 2013, p.61). The term vertical protective strategy (VPS) is used here to refer to what is, in emergency management, called vertical evacuation (VE) or vertical shelter. VE and vertical shelter have been defined by FEMA as “a building or earthen mound that has sufficient height to elevate evacuees above the level of tsunami inundation, and is designed and constructed with the strength and resiliency needed to resist the effects of tsunami waves” (Applied Technology Council, 2009, p. 1) and the impact of floating debris. The definition of VPS is preferred to the conventional definition of VE or shelter, since the former better highlights the complexity of the strategy and its protective function . In terms of mitigation purposes, VE is, therefore, aimed at saving lives rather than protecting property. However, depending on the kind of VE implemented, it can also support other mitigation goals such as public education and awareness and protection of critical infrastructures. For example, VE structures can be used as locations for Emergency Operation Centers

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