The Importance Of Enzyme

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II. Introduction
An enzyme is a specific type of macromolecule known as a catalyst, that accelerates the rate of chemical reactions by taking part in the reaction without being consumed (Wilson, et al 2015). Enzymes participate in these reactions inside the cell and decrease the activation energy required to begin the reaction. These catalytic agents bind to substrates that are changed into products. A component of the enzyme that is responsible for binding to substrate or the reactant is called the active site. As shape determines function in many cells, an active site’s specific shape can only attach to specific substrates; this is similar to a lock and key. This attachment is only temporary.

Products are released as heat and the enzyme binds to a new substrate after the reaction has been completed
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One of the enzymes that we are observing is alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
This enzyme is synthesized in primarily in bones, intestines, kidneys, and the liver. Because ALP is used to remove acidic phosphates, it also creates a pH (Wilson, et al 2015). Many enzymes such as elevated ALP can be used to detect cancers and diseases including jaundice. Bone ALP is an isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase manufactured by osteoblast cells which engage in bone formation (Zhan et al, 2016). The colorless substrate, paranitrophenol-phosphate (pNPP) is used in the experiment.
When phosphates from ALP are hydrolyzed, paranitrophenol (pNP), a yellow compound, is produced and a phosphate is lost. In the laboratory, determining optimum pH for alkaline, effects of enzyme concentration on catalytic reactions, and effects of temperature on catalytic reactions will be observed (Wilson, et al 2015). Using certain substances and measurements, several environmental factors affecting enzyme activity will be assessed.
Part One: Determining optimum pH for the enzyme

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