Organic Macromolecule Essay

Of the four organic macromolecules deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid. DNA is a double-stranded molecule comprised of numerous nucleotides covalently bound together. Nucleotides contain a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases. The four nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). To construct DNA’s double helix, hydrogen bonds form between two complementary nitrogenous bases. These bonds only form between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine (“DNA”).
DNA contains the instructions on how to create and build an organism. A gene is a sequence of nucleotides that code for different proteins, depending on the order of the nucleotides. In this way, genes determine
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In one research study, Maria B. Kretzmann, Neil J. Gemmell, and Axel Meyer used STR to determine if there was significant genetic variation among Hawaiian monk seals from different locations. The scientists collected samples from seals inhabiting six different Hawaiian Islands. The first short tandem repeat primer revealed that three genes had variability. From these three loci the scientists focused on one locus, Hg6.3, because it was the easiest to examine. They still examined the other two loci, but gained limited data from them. To analyze the seal samples, the researchers extracted DNA from the samples and amplified the short tandem repeats using PCR. Then, the scientists ran the PCR products through agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. The researchers measured the sizes of the bands by comparing them to standard fragments with known sizes. After the completion of the process, the scientists compared the seal’s genetic similarity by counting the number of similar base pair lengths and calculating a percentage of

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