The Evolution Of Policing

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Changes that shaped the development of modern policing involved early failures due to lack of structure, and subsequent phases of change. According to Drew and Prenzler (2015), policing provides authority to maintain law and order, crime prevention and enforcing regulations. During the evolution of policing, three eras occurred and continue to evolve as society changes. These eras include, the political era, reform era, community problem solving era, and arguably a fourth era known as the era of uncertainty or the era of homeland security. Sir Robert Peel’s principles of policing have provided foundation for changes in English and Australian policing and are still providing great influence today.

After the Anglo-Saxon period, policing in England was served by military forces, constables and watchmen (Joyce 2011). Military forces were able to guard property, arrest, take charge
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This includes, political era, reform era, community problem solving era and the era of uncertainty (Drew & Prenzler 2015). Kelling and Moore’s (1988) three eras of policing model has provided structure to the policing system throughout centuries. Although the policing model was based in the United States, research has shown it has been used throughout Australia and other western countries between different time periods (Drew & Prenzler 2015). Throughout the different eras, three policing styles were identified, such as the ‘watchman style’, which is known for keeping the peace through informal policing, and focusing on maintaining social order instead of strict law enforcement; the ‘legalistic style’, which involves strict law enforcement and is known for professionalism, and ‘service style’ which is associated with community satisfaction and having a good working relationship with the community (Drew & Prenzler

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