The Discovery Of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Essay examples

724 Words Jul 3rd, 2016 3 Pages
The discovery of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as genetic material by Oswald Theodore Avery in 1944 paved the way for modern technology in the life sciences. Scientists James D. Watson and Francis Crick determined that this genetic material was composed for four bases in 1953, which lead to the central dogma of molecular biology (Liu, et al., 2009). To better understand what this chemical code means, Alan Maxam and Walter Gilbert developed the Maxam-Gilbert manual DNA sequencing method in 1976. This method uses chemical reactions to break glycoside bonds within the double stranded DNA, to create a single stranded DNA with a radioactive label on the 5’ end. The labeled substrate is then cleaved to create known endpoints and these fragments are run on a polyacrylamide gel using electrophoresis. The gel would then use X-Ray technology to visualize the bands within the gel to base call, or determine the sequence of the DNA from 5’ to 3’ end (Integrated DNA Technologies, 2011). This manual process was laborious and prone to error. This method also used hazardous chemicals, and was unable to distinguish long reads (Yamashiro, 2015). Although this technique was one of the first methods to sequence DNA, improvements were needed to improve the labor, hazards and output of DNA sequencing. In 1977, Fred Sanger developed the Sanger method. This method utilized deoxyribose sugars. When a dieoxynucleotide was incorporated into a polynucleotide the chain would…

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