Ebola Virus Essay

In 2014, one of the most talked about subject was the deadly disease, Ebola. As Ebola became more contained, a new disease broke out, causing panic this past summer. The Zika virus has no cure and is spread to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, mainly affecting pregnant women and their unborn child. Though Ebola and the Zika virus are very different from one another in who they affect and how, they share one common factor in that they are both zoonotic diseases (Zoonotic, 2006). Animals transfer the zoonotic diseases to humans through physical contact, such as an animal bite or the consumption of raw meat. These zoonotic diseases infect livestock and are then transferred to humans, eventually leading to death in both humans and …show more content…
They do not respirate, produce waste products or ingest nutrients. All of these characteristics are the same characteristics of viruses. Therefore, most of these new pathogens are viruses. A virus has one role, to enter into a host and reproduce. Usually, a virus is made up of nucleic acid forming either DNA or RNA. The DNA or RNA is then surrounded by a capsid in order to protect the genetic materials. The virus will inject its genetic material into the host. Then, the virus will do one of two things; it might join its genetic material to the host’s and reproduce or it might produce more viruses using nutrients from the cell. Both methods of reproduction destroy the host cell while freeing all the viruses into the host. Viruses, themselves, are not always the cause of death in the host. Many times, it is not the direct damage of the virus that affects the host, but the host’s immune system reacting excessively to the virus and causing more harm to the host than the actual virus. For this reason, antiviral medications are given to calm the immune system and counteract any effects of the virus, rather than killing the virus (Belkin et al, 2006). The problem lies in the fact that viruses mutate quickly, allowing them to adapt while reproducing, creating new viruses that are more resistant each reproduction cycle.

Most zoonotic diseases are considered viruses because of how quickly they can adapt to be able to enter
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Many of the prevalent viruses that can be found in the sewage systems are considered zoonotic viruses. The virus can enter the drinking water system through the fecal matter of an animal that is infected, who can give off 100,000 to 10,000,000 virus particles in a single gram of their fecal matter. It can also enter into the drinking water through the pathogens of a dead organism. Since there is such a great amount of viral particles in the water, it would take only one organism to infect the whole water source and spread the virus to other host species. When organisms dying, the viral particles that have been given off find their way into the sewage and eventually run off into the ocean, infecting the seawater and the sea life. Ships release their waste into the oceans, as well, leading to more viral particles and further infection of the sea (Belkin, Colwell, 2006). This can effect humans and animals alike, if the individual uses the water for shelter, hydration, or recreation, such as swimming. Not much is known about the types of zoonotic diseases that can be found in the seawater and how these diseases might affect sea life.

The relationship between the spread if diseases and the climate was first discovered by Hippocrates in Greece. Though this relationship was realized so long ago, there has not been much research conducted on this particular topic. The research that

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