The Causative Agent Of Poliomyelitis Essay

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Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis; it is a human enterovirus and member of the Picornaviridae family [13]. Researchers developed two polio vaccines; inactivated (IPV) and live attenuated (OPV) grown in cultures made from monkey kidneys.
Since OPV has the advantages of being inexpensive, easy to administer, and produces excellent immunity; prevent infection with wild virus in areas where it is endemic [14], it has been the vaccine of choice for controlling poliomyelitis in many countries [15], until the first discovery of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) occurred in 2000 during investigation of a polio outbreak in the Dominican Republic and Haiti [16]. However, ensuring containment of wild-type polioviruses, from which the current IPV is made, raises major concerns. Thus, development of IPV from non-pathogenic strains becomes a top priority, it would cost less, increase efficacy, and elevate biosecurity concerns [17].
However, the antigenic properties and immunogenicity of sIPV appear different from conventional IPV [18], because the protective antigens of Sabin viruses are significantly less stable upon treatment with formaldehyde [19, 20], there are four possible solutions to the problem of lower immunogenicity and stability of Sabin IPV.
First would be to increase antigen content to the level that would ensure adequate seroconversion. However, this would require growing greater quantities of virus, which would work against cost reduction;…

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