Perpetual Peace: Kant Analysis

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In the citation from Perpetual Peace, Kant is explaining that commerce binds everyone together because it helps ease tension and teaches countries to compromise in ways that will meet the equilibrium for everyone. The general proposition is that popular and responsible governments would be more willing to promote peace and commerce if it were in the stream of European thought and political practice. Furthermore, he argues that the internal affairs of a state or nation are considered to be an exclusive matter. If one state acted heinous or unjustly toward another state, then the injured state has a right to defend itself and its citizens. However, when attacked they cannot use human beings as a means to an end.
In the text, Kant proposes a peace program to be enacted (also known as “The Preliminary Articles.”) which describes these steps that should be taken immediately or with all deliberate speed (withdrawn over time):
No conclusion of peace shall be considered valid as such if it was made with secret reservation of the material for future war.
No independently existing state, whether it be large or small, may be acquired by another state by inheritance, exchange, purchase or gift.
Standing armies shall in time be
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Chinese and Russian upper-class benefit exceptionally from U.S direct order and they know that the profits gained within their societies is essential for them to remain in power. Furthermore, both of them would like to see the tyrannical system that they have established projected onto international relations. For example, small countries near the China Sea such as Vietnam, Philippines, and Taiwan have to give in to China demands and obey them because they have no power to disobey China. The same concept applies to the relationship with Ukraine and

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