Essay about Study Guide Ch. 15, 16, 17

2168 Words Oct 24th, 2013 9 Pages
Exam 2 Study Guide w/ Chapters 15, 16, 17
1) Innate Immunity (p.446): A defenses against pathogens that is present at birth.
Two major lines of defense;
1. Physical : Skin (epidermis + dermis) and mucous membranes
2. Internal: Cell and chemicals that inactivate or kill invaders
Adaptive immunity (p.446): The body’s ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders and their products.
2) Five attributes of adaptive immunity (p.471)
1. Specificity: When the immune response acts to one specific molecular shape and not against others.
2. Inducibility: When they activate only in response to a specific pathogen.
3. Clonality: Once induced, they clone.
4. Unresponsiveness to self: They do not attack the body “self”.
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Monocytes: Leave the blood, diapedesis, and mature into macrophages then phagocytize pathogens.

10) An increase of leukocyte (white blood cells) would indicate disease. Bacterial diseases often show increase in leukocytes and neutrophils.
An increase of eosinophils would indicate allergies or infection with parasitic worms.
An increase in lymphocytes would indicate a viral infection

11) Six stages of phagocytosis (p.453-455):
1. Positive Chemotaxis: The movement of a cell towards chemical stimuli.
2. Adherence: When phagocytes attach to a microorganism membrane
3. Ingestion: A pseudopodia surrounds the microbe then its phagocytized and becomes a phagosome.
4. Maturation: Lysosomes, from the Golgi body, attaches to the phagosome.
5. Killing: Lysosomes releases digestive chemicals into it. It is now called a phagolysosome. The engulfed microbe is digested and dies.
6. Elimination: Sometimes digestion is not complete and the remnants must be removed via exocytosis.

12) Non-phagocytic Killing (p.455):
Eosinophils (p.455): Though they can phagocytize, they typically secrete antimicrobial chemicals
a. Eosinophil mitochondrial DNA and proteins form structure that kills some bacteria
b. Attack parasitic helminths by attaching to their surface
1. Secrete toxins that weaken or kill the helminth
2. Elevated eosinophils often

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