Sigmund Freud And Erikson's Child Development Theory

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Child Development Theory
Many psychologists studied the different ways children develop. Most of the psychologist putting them into stages. One of the most widely known theorists Sigmund Freud believed that consciousness could be identified using three parts. Sigmund Freud was a Viennese doctor, who believed that the way parents raised their children would determine how their personalities developed, and would determine if they became well rounded adults. The stages focused on sexual activity and pleasure they received from a specific area of the body (Oswalt). Freud also focused on consciousness. He believed that babies were originally dominated by unconsciousness, instinctual and selfish urges, and satisfaction which he then labeled
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Erikson is widely known for his eight stages of psychological crises, which were well influenced by Sigmund Freud. According to Erikson, the ego develops as it successfully revolves crises that are distinctly social in nature (McLeod). Erikson extended his thoughts based off of Freud’s stages. Erikson’s theory has eight stages each which build upon another stage. The first stage is trust vs. mistrust the ages would be infancy to 1 ½ years old. He believed that during this stage infants were uncertain about the world and that infants would look for stability and care (McLeod). Success in stage one would lead to hope, and develop a sense of trust. Whereas if the stage was unsuccessful it would lead to mistrust in relationships. The second stage was Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, the child would be developing physically and would be becoming more mobile and would be between the ages of 18 months and 3 years of age (McLeod). The children would begin to learn their skills and abilities, and growing a sense of independence. Therefore in this stage parents should be encouraging their children and being supportive of them. If children are criticized and controlled they are not given the opportunity to assert themselves, which make them feel inadequate, and cause them to have a low self-esteem (McLeod). The third stage is Initiative vs. Guilt. This stage would take place around the ages of 3 to 5. This stage consists of the children interacting with other children at school. Children should be playing and making up games, and initiating activities with other children. When children have the ability to do so, they feel more independent and are known to take more initiative (McLeod). Although if a child begins to ask questions, and the parents or adult treat these questions as a bother rather than showing them appreciation for asking questions, they may then begin to feel guilt (McLeod). The fourth

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