Routine Classivity Theory: The Causes Of Criminal Activity

1058 Words 5 Pages
When examining the causes of criminal activity, many theorists devote their attention to the offenders themselves, and what it is that may motivate them to commit crime. However, even if offenders are motivated to commit crimes, they can only do so if the opportunity to commit the crime is available to them. Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson developed routine activity theory (RAT) to explain how criminal opportunities vary according to time and place (Drawve, Thomas & Walker, 2014). Therefore, a decrease in the number of opportunities to commit crime would cause the number of crimes committed to decrease as well. RAT proposes that crime is influenced by the opportunities that arise throughout normal daily activities.
Felson and Cohen argued that in order for a crime to occur, there were three necessary requirements: a motivated offender, a suitable target, and a lack of guardianship (Drawve et al., 2014). First, an offender must have the inclination to commit a criminal act. A criminal act will only occur if an individual is motivated to commit
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SCP enforces interventions that aim to immediately prevent and reduce criminal activities by altering the context of the community in ways that will reduce opportunities to offend. Therefore, in order to prevent crime from occurring, it is necessary to make the suitable targets less attractive while increasing the amount of capable guardianship. Research has shown that as the targets become less attractive, the costs of committing crimes will increase and the motivation to commit the act will decrease (Bratingham et al., 2005). SCP has led to the development of strategies that aim to increase the effort and risks of committing crime, and to reduce the rewards of committing a (Bratingham et al., 2005). In order to examine the effectiveness of SCP under RAT, it is necessary to examine the results of studies that have implemented the use of SCP

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