Introduction Richard I reigned over England during the Middle Ages from 1189 to 1199 with great bravery and immense courage. Richard was born as the third legitimate son of King Henry II of England and never assumed that he would ever ascend to become the king. After leading his country in the Third Crusade, he gained the nicknames “the lionhearted” and “the absent king.” Through many heroic deeds while away at war, he deserved the nickname of “The Lionhearted” the most.
Richard was born on September 8, 1157, at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, England. He was the fourth child and third son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Not much is known about Richard’s education; however, he could not speak English, and
…show more content…
Richard continued to challenge his father for the throne for many years, and from 1180 to 1183, Henry II commanded Richard to pay homage to Henry III, but Richard would not. After years of challenging his father, Henry III and Geoffrey invaded Aquitaine in an attempt to break Richard down. The barons who had supported Richard turned against him and joined his brothers in their attempt to stop him. After Henry III died in June 1183, Henry II gave his youngest and favorite son, John, permission to join Geoffrey in the invasion of Aquitaine. In 1189, Richard attempted to take the throne of England for himself by joining Philip II’s rebellion against Henry II. In July, Henry II’s army was defeated and Richard finally was named the heir of England. Two days later, Henry II died and Richard succeeded him as the King of England, Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou. Roger of Hoveden claimed that when Richard came to see the body of his father, Henry’s corpse would bleed from the nose, which was said to mean that Richard caused his death. Another event that justifies his nickname, “Lionheart,” would be Richard’s time at war in the Third Crusade. Richard’s army was quite victorious during this crusade despite the fact that it fell short of its main goal of conquering Jerusalem. Richard’s major victories included conquering the island of Cyprus, the Siege of Acre, and the Battle of Arsuf. When his ships ran aground on the island of