Essay Psy 244

10459 Words Apr 15th, 2014 42 Pages
Psychology 244
Instructor: L.J. Harris

PSYCHOLOGY 244

MIDTERM EXAMINATION

Spring, 2014

Study Guide

Organization of Examination and Questions From Which Test Questions Will be Drawn

All questions on the examination will come from the lectures (Topics I – X) and the assigned chapters and parts of chapters in the textbook. To help frame the questions for you, they will be organized under the same main headings and subheadings used in the Lecture Notes. The only exceptions will be a few subheadings that pertain to material covered only in the text. Under each heading will be a mix of true-false and multiple-choice questions, and possibly a few analogies, with all answers to be recorded on a scantron sheet. Along with
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Why is the debate today seen as based on a false dichotomy, so that instead of nurture vs. nurture, the term “gene-environment interaction@ is used instead?
Nature: posits certain inborn structures of mind (Rene Descartes 1596-1650, George Wilhelm von Leibniz 1646-1716, Immanuel Kant 1724-1804)
Nurture (environmentalism): emphasizes effects of experience on a passive mind; likens mind to “empty slate”; knowledge is based on experience; no innate ideas (John Locke 1632-1704)
Gene-environment interaction: genes never work in isolation, but always in combination with environmental influences

5. The English philosopher John Locke described the child's mind as a "tabula rasa." He was referring to its initial quality, or state. What did he mean?
Blank slate; knowledge comes from experiences

6. In light of Locke’s views about the child’s mind at birth, what do you suppose might have been his positions on such matters as the importance of education and the reasons why schoolchildren are often afraid of school?
education is crucial to development: should be open to all
denies innate tendencies, dispositions, fears in children; all through experience

7. Locke declared, AWhen we set before [the young infant=s] eyes a round globe . . . it is certain that the idea thereby implanted on [its] mind is of a flat circle.@ What was he supposing to be the quality of the infant’s first visual impressions?
Visual perception (in particular

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